PIER
 
Progress In Electromagnetics Research
ISSN: 1070-4698, E-ISSN: 1559-8985
Home | Search | Notification | Authors | Submission | PIERS Home | EM Academy
Home > Vol. 125 > pp. 1-19

SIGNAL PROPAGATION ANALYSIS FOR LOW DATA RATE WIRELESS SENSOR NETWORK APPLICATIONS IN SPORT GROUNDS AND ON ROADS

By D. L. Ndzi, M. A. M. Arif, A. Y. M. Shakaff, M. N. Ahmad, A. Harun, L. M. Kamarudin, A. Zakaria, M. F. Ramli, and M. S. Razalli

Full Article PDF (352 KB)

Abstract:
This paper presents results of a study to characterise wireless point-to-point channel for wireless sensor networks applications in sport hard court arenas, grass fields and on roads. Antenna height and orientation effects on coverage are also studied and results show that for omni-directional patch antenna, node range is reduced by a factor of 2 when the antenna orientation is changed from vertical to horizontal. The maximum range for a wireless node on a hard court sport arena has been determined to be 70 m for 0 dBm transmission but this reduces to 60 m on a road surface and to 50 m on a grass field. For horizontal antenna orientation the range on the road is longer than on the sport court which shows that scattered signal components from the rougher road surface combine to extend the communication range. The channels investigated showed that packet error ratio (PER) is dominated by large-scale, rather than small-scale, channel fading with an abrupt transition from low PER to 100% PER. Results also show that large-scale received signal power can be modeled with a 2nd order log-distance polynomial equation on the sport court and road, but a 1st order model is sufficient for the grass field. Small-scale signal variations have been found to have a Rice distribution for signal to noise ratio levels greater than 10 dB but the Rice K-factor exhibits significant variations at short distances which can be attributed to the influence of strong ground reflections.

Citation:
D. L. Ndzi, M. A. M. Arif, A. Y. M. Shakaff, M. N. Ahmad, A. Harun, L. M. Kamarudin, A. Zakaria, M. F. Ramli, and M. S. Razalli, "Signal Propagation Analysis for Low Data Rate Wireless Sensor Network Applications in Sport Grounds and on Roads," Progress In Electromagnetics Research, Vol. 125, 1-19, 2012.
doi:10.2528/PIER11111406
http://www.jpier.org/PIER/pier.php?paper=11111406

References:
1. Eady, F., Hands-on ZigBee Implementing 802.15.4 with Microcontrollers, Elsevier Inc., Newnes, United Kingdom, 2007, ISBN: 0123708877.

2. Halgamuge, M. N., M. Zukerman, K. Ramamohanarao, and H. L. Vu, "An estimation of sensor energy consumption," Progress In Electromagnetics Research B, Vol. 12, 259-295, 2009.

3. Liu, H.-Q., H.-C. So, K. W. K. Lui, and F. K. W. Chan, "Sensor selection for target tracking in sensor networks," Progress In Electromagnetics Research, Vol. 95, 267-282, 2009.

4. Liu, H.-Q. and H.-C. So, "Target tracking with line-of-sight identification in sensor networks under unknown measurement noises," Progress In Electromagnetics Research, Vol. 97, 373-389, 2009.

5. Sim, Z. W., R. Shuttleworth, M. J. Alexander, and B. D. Grieve, "Compact patch antenna design for outdoor RF energy harvesting in wireless sensor networks," Progress In Electromagnetics Research, Vol. 105, 273-294, 2010.

6. Nadimi, E. S., H. T. Sogaard, and T. Bak, "ZigBee-based wireless sensor networks for classifying the behaviour of a herd of animals using classification trees," Biosystems Engineering, Vol. 100, 167-176, 2008.

7. Nadimi, E. S., H. T. Sogaard, T. Bak, and F. W. Oudshoorn, "ZigBee-based wireless sensor networks for monitoring animal presence and pasture time in a strip of new grass," Computers and Electronics in Agriculture, 1-9, 2007.

8. Lopez, M., S. Martinez, J. M. Gomez, A. Herms, L. Tort, J. Bausells, and A. Errachid, "Wireless monitoring of the pH, NH4+ and temperature in a fish farm," Procedia Chemistry, Vol. 1, 445-448, 2009.

9. Riquelme, J. A. L., F. Soto, J. Suardiaz, P. Sanchez, A. Iborra, and J. A. Vera, "Wireless sensor networks for precision horticulture in Southern Spain," Computers and Electronics in Agriculture, Vol. 68, 25-35, 2009.

10. Gay-Fernandez, J. A., M. Garcia Sanchez, I. Cuinas, A. V. Alejos, J. G. Sanchez, and J. L. Miranda-Sierra, "Propagation analysis and deployment of a wireless sensor network in a forest," Progress In Electromagnetics Research, Vol. 106, 121-145, 2010.

11. Mitilineos, S. A., D. M. Kyriazanos, O. E. Segou, J. N. Goufas, and S. C. A. Thomopoulos, "Indoor localisation with wireless sensor networks," Progress In Electromagnetics Research, Vol. 109, 441-474, 2010.

12. Verdone, R., D. Dardari, G. Mazzini, and A. Conti, Wireless Sensor and Actuator Networks Technologies, Analysis and Design, Academic Press, Elsevier Inc., United Kingdom, 2008.

13. Chen, Y., Z. Zhang, L. Hu, and P. B. Rapajic, "Geomatry-based statistical model for radio propagation in rectangular office buildings," Progress In Electromagnetics Research B, Vol. 17, 187-212, 2009.

14. Chen, Y., Z. Zhang, and T. Qin, "Geomatrically based channel model for indoor radio propagation with directional antennas," Progress In Electromagnetics Research B, Vol. 20, 109-124, 2010.

15. Howitt, I. L. and M. S. Khan, "A mode based approach for characterizing RF propagation in conduits," Progress In Electromagnetics Research B, Vol. 20, 49-64, 2010.

16. Su, W. and M. Alzaghal, "Channel propagation characteristics of wireless MICAz sensor nodes," Ad Hoc Networks, 1-11, 2008.

17. Wyne, S., T. Santos, F. Tufvesson, and A. F. Molisch, Channel measurements of an indoor office scenario for wireless sensor applications, IEEE Global Communications Conf., 3831-3836, 2007.

18. K., M. Malajner, P. Planinsic, Z. Cucej, "Using RSSI value for distance estimation in wireless sensor networks based on ZigBee," IEEE Inter. Conf. on Systems, Signals and Image Processing, 303-306, 2008.

19. Xia, F., Y. C. Tian, Y. Li, and Y. Sun, "Wireless sensor/actuator network design for mobile control applications," Sensors, Vol. 7, 2157-2173, 2007.

20. Siden, J., A. Koptyug, M. Gulliksson, and H. E. Nilsson, "An action activated and self powered wireless forest fire detector," International Federal for Information Processing 2007, 47-58, 2007.

21. Phaebua, K., R. Suwalak, C. Phongcharoenpaniach, and M. Krairiksh, "Statistical characteristic measurements of propagation in durian orchard for sensor network at 5.8 GHz," IEEE Inter. Symposium on Communications and Information Technology, 520-523, 2008.

22. Kim, S., S. Pakzad, D. Culler, J. Demmel, G. Fenves, S. Glaser, and M. Turon, Health monitoring of civil infrastructures using wireless sensor networks, Proc. of 6th Inter. Conf. on Information Processing in Sensor Networks, IPSN'07, 254-263, ACM Press, Cambridge, MA, Apr. 2007.

23. Anastasi, G., G. L. Re, and M. Ortolani, WSNs for structural health monitoring of historical buildings, Conference on Human System Interactions, Catania, Italy, May 21-23, 2009.

24. Corredor, I., A. García, J. F. Martínez, and P. López, "Wireless sensor network-based system for measuring and monitoring road traffic," 6th CollECTeR Iberoamérica Conf., Madrid, Spain, Jun. 2008.

25. Iannizzotto, G., F. L. Rosa, and L. L. Bello, "A wireless sensor network for distributed autonomous traffic monitoring," 3rd Conference on Human System Interactions, HSI, Rzeszow, Poland, May 2010.

26. Llosa, J., I. Vilajosana, X. Vilajosana, N. Navarro, E. Surinach, and J. M. Marques, "REMOTE, a wireless sensor network based system to monitor rowing performance," Sensors, Vol. 9, 7069-7082, 2009.

27. Dhamdhere, A., H. Chen, A. Kurusingal, V. Sivaraman, and A. Burdett, "Experiments with wireless sensor networks for real-time Athlete monitoring," 5th IEEE Inter. Workshop on Practical Issues in Building Sensor Network Applications, SenseApp 2010, Denver, Colorado, USA, 2010.

28. Mottola, L., G. P. Picco, M. Ceriotti, S. Guna, and A. L. Murphy, "Not all wireless sensor networks are created equal: A comparative study on tunnels," ACM Trans. on Sensor Networks, Vol. 7, No. 2, Aug. 2010.

29. Shuai, M., K. Xie, X. Ma, and G. Song, An on-road wireless sensor network approach for urban traffic state monitoring, Proc. of 11th Int. IEEE Conf. on Intelligent Transportation Systems, Beijing, China, Oct. 2008.

30. Megalingam, R. K., V. Mohan, M. Ajay, and P. L. S. Rizwin, Wireless sensor network for vehicle speed monitoring and routing system, IET Int. Conf. on Wireless Sensor Network, Beijing, China, Nov. 2010.

31. Mouftah, H. T., M. Khanafer, and M. Guennoun, Wire-less sensor network architectures for intelligent vehicular systems, http://www.mcit.gov.sa/nr/rdonlyres/08880e2f-f4c9-4029-988f-05bf1379516d/0/paper2.pdf, accessed 14, Nov. 2011.

32. Franceschinis, M., L. Gioanola., M. Messere, R. Tomasi, M. A. Spirito, and P. Civera, Wireless sensor networks for intelligent transportation systems, IEEE Vehicular Technology Conf., Barcelona, Spain, Jun. 2009.

33. Ndzi, D. L., K. Stuart, S. Toautachone, B. Vuksanovic, and D. A. Sanders, "Wideband sounder for dynamic and static wireless channel characterisation: Urban picocell channel model," Progress In Electromagnetics Research, Vol. 113, 285-312, 2011.

34. MRF24J40MA Datasheet: 2.4 GHz IEEE Std. 802.15.4 RF Transceiver Module (DS70329A), Microchip Technology Inc., 2008.

35. Wireless Medium Access Control (MAC) and Physical Layer (PHY) Speci¯cations for Low-Rate Wireless Personal Area Networks (LR-WPAN) Standard 2003, 14, IEEE Computer Society, 2003.

36. Myneni, S. and T. Manolescu, MRF24J40 radio utility driver program, AN1192, Microchip Tech. Inc., 2009.

37. Mahalin, N. H., H. S. Sharifah, S. K. S. Yusof, N. Fisal, and R. A. Rashid, RSSI measurements for enabling IEEE 802.15.4 coexistence with IEEE 802.11 b/g , TENCON 2009, IEEE Region 10 Conference, 1-4, Singapore, 2009.

38. Petrova, M., R. Riihijarvi, P. Mahonen, and S. Labella, Performance study of IEEE 802.15.4 using measurements and simulations, IEEE Wireless Communications and Networking Conference, (WCNC 2006), 487-492, Las Vegas, NV, Apr. 2006.

39. Shankar, P. M., Introduction to Wireless Systems, John Wiley & Sons Inc., New York, 2002.

40. Dal Bello, J. C. R., G. L. Siqueira, and L. Bertoni, "Theoretical analysis and measurement results of vegetation effects on path loss for mobile cellular communication systems," IEEE Transactions Vehicular Technology, 1285-1293, 2000.

41. NIST/SEMATECH, Engineering Statistics Handbook, http://itl.nist.gov/div898/handbook/eda/section3/eda35g.htm, Accessed 3, Oct. 2011.

42. Dobkin, D. M., RF Engineering for Wireless Networks, Hardware, Antennas and Propagation, Elsevier Inc., Newnes, United Kingdom, 2005.

43. Barclay, L., Propagation of Radiowaves, 2nd Ed., The Institution of Electrical Engineers, London, 2003.

44. Linnartz, J.-P. M. G. Wireless communication reference website, 1996-2004, http://wireless.per.nl/reference/chaptr03 /ricenaka/ricenaka.htm, Accessed 3, Oct. 2011.

45. Meng, Y. S., Y. H. Lee, and B. C. Ng, "Path loss modeling for near-ground VHF radio-wave propagation throught forest with tree-canopy reflection effect," Progress In Electromagnetics Research M, Vol. 12, 131-141, 2010.


© Copyright 2014 EMW Publishing. All Rights Reserved