A novel microwave imaging approach for early stage breast cancer detection is described. The proposed technique involves the use of an Indirect Microwave Holographic technique employing a patented synthetic reference wave. This approach offers benefits in terms of simplicity, expense, comfort and safety when compared to current mammography techniques. Experimental results using a simulated breast phantom are included to demonstrate the validity of this technique to obtain 2D images. The technique is then extended to demonstrate the possibility of obtaining 3D images by using indirect stereoscopic holographic imaging.
2. Artmann, A., K. Hellerhoff, and S. H. Heywang-Kobrunner, "Screening in women with increased breast cancer risk," Breast Care, Vol. 1, No. 1, 22-25, 2006.
3. Bindu, G. N., S. J. Abraham, A. Lonappan, V. Thomas, C. K. Aanandan, and K. T. Mathew, "Active microwave imaging for breast cancer detection," Progress In Electromagnetics Research, Vol. 58, 149-169, 2006.
4. O’Halloran, M., M. Glavin, and E. Jones, "Rotating antenna microwave imaging system for breast cancer detection," Progress In Electromagnetics Research, Vol. 107, 203-217, 2010.
5. Zhou, H., T. Takenaka, J. E. Johnson, and T. Tanaka, "A breast imaging model using microwaves and a time domain three dimensional reconstruction method ," Progress In Electromagnetics Research, Vol. 93, 57-70, 2009.
6. Zhang, H., S. Y. Tan, and H. S. Tan, "A novel method for microwave breast cancer detection," Progress In Electromagnetics Research, Vol. 83, 413-434, 2008.
7. Fear, E. C., X. Li, S. C. Hagness, and M. A. Stuchly, "Confocal microwave imaging for breast cancer detection: Localization of tumors in three dimensions ," IEEE Transactions on Biomedical Engineering, Vol. 49, No. 8, 812-822, 2002.
8. Fear, E. C., S. C. Hagness, P. M. Meaney, M. Okoniewski, and M. A. Stuchly, "Enhancing breast tumour detection with near-field," IEEE Microwave Magazine, Vol. 3, No. 1, 48-56, 2002.
9. Hagness, S. C., A. Taflove, and J. E. Bridges, "Two dimensional FDTD analysis of a pulsed microwave confocal system for breast cancer detection: Fixed focus and antenna array sensors ," IEEE Transactions on Biomedical Engineering,, Vol. 45, No. 12, 1470-1479, 1998.
10. Nikolova, N. K., "Microwave imaging for breast cancer," IEEE Microwave Magazine, Vol. 12, No. 7, 78-94, 2011.
11. Conceicao, R. C., M. O’Halloran, M. Glavin, and E. Jones, "Comparison of planar and circular antenna configurations for breast cancer detection using microwave imaging ," Progress In Electromagnetics Research, Vol. 99, 1-20, 2009.
12. Maskooki, A., E. Gunawan, C. B. Soh, and K. S. Low, "Frequency domain skin artifact removal method for ultra-wideband breast cancer detection," Progress In Electromagnetics Research, Vol. 98, 299-314, 2009.
13. Bindu, G. N., A. Lonappan, V. Thomas, C. K. Aanandan, and K. T. Mathew, "Dielectric studies of corn syrup for applications in microwave breast imaging," Progress In Electromagnetics Research, Vol. 59, 175-186, 2006.
14. Rosen, A., M. A. Stuchly, and A. V. Vorst, "Applications of RF/microwaves in medicine," IEEE Transactions on Microwave Theory and Techniques, Vol. 50, No. 3, 963-974, 2002.
15. Karpowicz, N., H. Zhong, J. Xu, K. Lin, J. S. Hwang, and X. C. Zhang, "Comparison between pulsed terahertz imaging time-domain imaging and continuous wave terahertz imaging," Semiconductor Science and Technology, Vol. 20, No. 7, 293-299, 2005.
16. Smith, D., "Microwave holographic measuring method and apparatus," Patent Application, No. 0022503.7, 2000.
17. Elsdon, M., D. Smith, M. Leach, and S. J. Foti, "Experimental investigation of breast tumor imaging using indirect microwave holography ," Microwave and Optical Technology Letters, Vol. 48, No. 3, 480-482, 2006.
18. Rahmat-Samii, Y., L. I. Williams, and R. G. Yaccarino, "The UCLA bi-polar planar near-field antenna measurement and diagnostic range ," IEEE Antennas and Propagation Magazine, Vol. 37, No. 6, 16-35, 1995.
19. Yaghjian, A. D., "An overview of near-field antenna measurements," IEEE Transactions on Antennas Propagation, Vol. 34, No. 1, 30-45, 1986.
20. Smith, D., M. Leach, M. Elsdon, and S. J. Foti, "Indirect holographictechniques for determining antenna radiation characteristics and imaging aperture fields," IEEE Antennas and Propagation Magazine, Vol. 49, No. 1, 54-67, 2007.
21. Yurduseven, O., D. Smith, B. Livingstone, V. Schejbal, and Z. You, "Investigations of resolution limits for indirect microwave holographic imaging ," International Journal of RF and Microwave Computer-Aided Engineering, Vol. 23, No. 4, 410-416, 2013.
22. Leach, M., M. Elsdon, S. J. Foti, and D. Smith, "Imaging dielectric objects using a novel off-axis holographic technique," Microwave and Optical Technology Letters, Vol. 48, No. 1, 1957-1959, 2006.
23. Gabor, D., "Microscopy by reconstructed wavefronts," Proceedings of the Royal Society of London (Series A), Vol. 197, No. 1051, 454-487, 1949.
24. Tenant, A., G. Junkin, and A. P. Anderson, "Advances in phase retrieval metrology," 8th International Conference on Antennas and Propagation, Vol. 1, 323-326, 1993.
25. Gostanzo, S., G. D. Massa, and M. D. Migliore, "A novel hybrid approach for far-field characterization from near-field amplitude-only measurements on arbitrary scanning surfaces ," IEEE Transactions on Antennas and Propagation, Vol. 53, No. 6, 1866-1874, 2005.
26. Leith, E. N. and J. Upatnieks, "Reconstructed wavefronts and communication theory," Journal of the Optical Society of America, Vol. 52, No. 10, 1123-1128, 1962.
27. Brown, J. and E. V. Jull, "The prediction of aerial radiation patterns from near field measurements," Proceedings of the IEE — Part B: Electronic and Communication Engineering, Vol. 108, No. 42, 635-644, 1961.
28. Paris, D. T., W. M. Leach, and E. B. Joy, "Basic theory of probe-compensated near-field measurements," IEEE Transactions on Antennas and Propagation, Vol. 26, No. 3, 373-379, 1978.
29. Dixon, M. and R. Sainsbury, Handbook of Diseases of the Breast, 2nd Ed., Churchill Livingstone, 1998.
30. Lazebnik, M., D. Popovic, L. McCartney, C. B. Watkins, M. J. Lindstrom, J. Harter, S. Sewall, T. Ogilvie, A. Magliocco, T. M. Breslin, and W. Temp, "A large-scale study of the ultrawideband microwave dielectric properties of normal, benign and malignant breast tissues obtained from cancer surgeries ," Physics in Medicine and Biology, Vol. 52, No. 20, 6093-6115, 2007.
31. Kim, T.-H. and J.-K. Pack, "Measurement of electrical characteristics of female breast tissues for the development of the breast cancer detector ," Progress In Electromagnetics Research C, Vol. 30, 189-199, 2012.