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Progress In Electromagnetics Research | ISSN: 1070-4698, E-ISSN: 1559-8985 |

Home > Vol. 149 > pp. 69-84
## VECTOR POTENTIAL ELECTROMAGNETICS WITH GENERALIZED GAUGE FOR INHOMOGENEOUS MEDIA: FORMULATION (Invited Paper)By W. C. Chew
Abstract:
Vector and scalar potential formulation is valid from quantum theory to classical electromagnetics. The rapid development in quantum optics calls for electromagnetic solutions that straddle quantum physics as well as classical physics. The vector potential formulation is a good candidate to bridge these two regimes. Hence, there is a need to generalize this formulation to inhomogeneous media. A generalized gauge is suggested for solving electromagnetic problems in inhomogenous media which can be extended to the anistropic case. The advantages of the resulting equations are their absence of low-frequency catastrophe. Hence, usual differentialequation solvers can be used to solve them over multi-scale and broad bandwidth. It is shown that the interface boundary conditions from the resulting equations reduce to those of classical Maxwell's equations. Also, classical Green's theorem can be extended to such a formulation, resulting in similar extinction theorem, and surface integral equation formulation for surface scatterers. The integral equations also do not exhibit low-frequency catastrophe as well as frequency imbalance as observed in the classical formulation using E-H fields. The matrix representation of the integral equation for a PEC scatterer is given.
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