Progress In Electromagnetics Research
ISSN: 1070-4698, E-ISSN: 1559-8985
Home | Search | Notification | Authors | Submission | PIERS Home | EM Academy
Home > Vol. 157 > pp. 49-61


By J. P. Barrett, A. R. Katko, and S. A. Cummer

Full Article PDF (1,090 KB)

Metamaterials have been previously loaded with diodes and other types of passive circuit elements. Transistors offer an alternative to these established loading elements to expand the possible capabilities of metamaterials. With embedded transistors, additional degrees of freedom are achieved and lay out the architecture for more complex electromagnetic metamaterial design. A mathematical analysis of transistor loaded SRR unit cells is described in which the transistor acts as a variable resistor. From the mathematical analysis, we calculate transmission coefficients for a single unit cell. We then experimentally measure two SRRs with tunable quality factors and thus tunable bandwidth based upon modulating the effective loading circuit resistance to confirm the calculations. From the agreement between the calculated and measured transmission coefficients, we expand the analysis to show that a slab of more densely packed unit cells can achieve negative permeability with varying degrees of dispersion.

J. P. Barrett, A. R. Katko, and S. A. Cummer, "Bandwidth Tuning in Transistor Embedded Metamaterials Using Variable Resistance," Progress In Electromagnetics Research, Vol. 157, 49-61, 2016.

1. Pendry, J., A. Holden, D. Robbins, and W. Stewart, "Magnetism from conductors and enhanced nonlinear phenomena," IEEE Transactions on Microwave Theory and Techniques, Vol. 47, No. 11, 2075-2084, 1999.

2. Marques, R., F. Medina, and R. Rafii-El-Idrissi, "Role of bianisotropy in negative permeability and left-handed metamaterials," Physical Review B, Vol. 65, 144440, 2002.

3. Schurig, D., J. Mock, and D. Smith, "Electric-field-coupled resonators for negative permittivity metamaterials," Applied Physics Letters, Vol. 88, No. 4, 041109, 2006.

4. Smith, D., J. Pendry, and M. Wiltshire, "Metamaterials and negative refractive index," Science, Vol. 305, No. 5685, 788-792, 2004.

5. Padilla, W., D. Basov, and D. Smith, "Negative refractive index metamaterials," Materials Today, Vol. 9, No. 78, 28-35, 2006.

6. Schurig, D., J. J. Mock, B. J. Justice, S. A. Cummer, J. B. Pendry, A. F. Starr, and D. R Smith, "Metamaterial electromagnetic cloak at microwave frequencies," Science, Vol. 314, No. 5801, 977-980, 2006.

7. Pendry, J., "Negative refraction makes a perfect lens," Physical Review Letters, Vol. 85, 3966-3969, 2000.

8. Freire, M., R. Marques, and L. Jelinek, "Experimental demonstration of a = 1 metamaterial lens for magnetic resonance imaging," Applied Physics Letters, Vol. 93, No. 23, 231108, 2008.

9. Greegor, R., C. Parazzoli, J. A. Nielsen, M. H. Tanielian, D. Vier, S. Schultz, C. Holloway, and R. Ziolkowski, "Demonstration of impedance matching using a mu-negative (mng) metamaterial," IEEE Antennas and Wireless Propagation Letters, Vol. 8, 92-95, 2009.

10. Erentok, A. and R. Ziolkowski, "Metamaterial-inspired efficient electrically small antennas," IEEE Transactions on Antennas and Propagation, Vol. 56, No. 3, 691-707, 2008.

11. Ziolkowski, R., P. Jin, and C.-C. Lin, "Metamaterial-inspired engineering of antennas," Proceedings of the IEEE, Vol. 99, No. 10, 1720-1731, 2011.

12. Gil, I., J. Garcia-Garcia, J. Bonache, F. Martin, M. Sorolla, and R. Marques, "Varactor-loaded split ring resonators for tunable notch filters at microwave frequencies," Electronic Letters, Vol. 40, No. 21, 1347-1348, 2004.

13. Reynet, O. and O. Acher, "Voltage controlled metamaterial," Applied Physics Letters, Vol. 84, No. 7, 1198-1200, 2004.

14. Hand, T. and S. Cummer, "Characterization of tunable metamaterial elements using mems switches," IEEE Antennas and Wireless Propagation Letters, Vol. 6, 401-404, 2007.

15. Zou, D., A. Jiang, and R.-X. Wu, "Ferromagnetic metamaterial with tunable negative index of refraction," Journal of Applied Physics, Vol. 107, No. 1, 013507, 2010.

16. Hand, T. and S. Cummer, "Frequency tunable electromagnetic metamaterial using ferroelectric loaded split rings," Journal of Applied Physics, Vol. 103, No. 6, 066105, 2008.

17. Cummer, S., B.-I. Popa, and T. Hand, "Q-based design equations and loss limits for resonant metamaterials and experimental validation," IEEE Transactions on Antennas and Propagation, Vol. 56, No. 1, 127-132, 2008.

18. Kodera, T., D. Sounas, and C. Caloz, "Artificial faraday rotation using a ring metamaterial structure without static magnetic field," Applied Physics Letters, Vol. 99, No. 3, 2011.

19. Jelinek, L. and J. Machac, "An fet-based unit cell for an active magnetic metamaterial," IEEE Antennas and Wireless Propagation Letters, Vol. 10, 927-930, 2011.

20. Xu, W., W. Padilla, and S. Sonkusale, "Loss compensation in metamaterials through embedding of active transistor based negative differential resistance circuits," Optics Express, Vol. 20, No. 20, 22406-22411, 2012.

21. Katko, A., J. Barrett, and S. Cummer, "Time-varying transistor-based metamaterial for tunability, mixing, and efficient phase conjugation," Journal of Applied Physics, Vol. 115, No. 14, 144501, 2014.

22. Pozar, D., "Microwave Engineering," John Wiley and Sons, 2005.

23. Steer, M., Microwave and RF Design: A Systems Approach, SciTech Publishing Company, Edison, NJ, 2010.

24. Tsividis, Y., Operation and Modeling of the MOS Transistor, 2nd Ed., Oxford University Press, New York, NY., 1999.

25. Sze, S. and K. Ng, Physics of Semiconductor Devices, 3rd Ed., John Wiley and Sons, Hoboken, NJ, 2007.

26. Taur, Y. and T. Ning, "Fundamentals of Modern VLSI Devices," Cambridge University Press, 2009.

27. Lee, K., M. Shur, T. Fjeldly, and T. Ytterdal, Semiconductor Device Modeling for VLSI, Prentice- Hall, Englewood Cliffs, NJ, 1993.

28. Cummer, S., B.-I. Popa, and T. Hand, "Q-based design equations and loss limits for resonant metamaterials and experimental validation," IEEE Transactions on Antennas and Propagation, Vol. 56, No. 1, 127-132, 2008.

29. Smith, D., S. Schultz, P. Markos, and C. Soukoulis, "Determination of effective permittivity and permeability of metamaterials from reflection and transmission coefficients," Physical Review B, Vol. 65, 195104, 2002.

© Copyright 2014 EMW Publishing. All Rights Reserved