PIER
 
Progress In Electromagnetics Research
ISSN: 1070-4698, E-ISSN: 1559-8985
Home | Search | Notification | Authors | Submission | PIERS Home | EM Academy
Home > Vol. 159 > pp. 1-13

MULTILAYERED BROADBAND ANTENNA FOR COMPACT EMBEDDED IMPLANTABLE MEDICAL DEVICES: DESIGN AND CHARACTERIZATION

By A. Garcia-Miquel, S. Curto, N. Vidal, J. M. Lopez-Villegas, F. M. Ramos, and P. Prakash

Full Article PDF (344 KB)

Abstract:
Design and characterization of a multilayered compact implantable broadband antenna for wireless biotelemetry applications is presented in this paper. The main features of this novel design are miniaturized size, structure that allows integration of electronic circuits of the implantable medical device inside the antenna, and enhanced bandwidth that mitigates possible frequency detuning caused by heterogeneity of biological tissues. Using electromagnetic simulations based on the finite-difference time-domain method, the antenna geometry was optimized to operate in the 401-406 MHz Medical Device Radio communications service band. The proposed design was simulated implanted in a muscle tissue cuboid phantom and implanted in the arm, head, and chest of a high-resolution whole-body anatomical numerical model of an adult human male. The antenna was fabricated using low-temperature co-fired ceramic technology. Measurements validated simulation results for the antenna implanted in muscle tissue cuboid phantom. The proposed compact antenna, with dimensions of 14 mm × 16 mm × 2 mm, presented a -10 dB bandwidth of 103 MHz and 92 MHz for simulations and measurements, respectively. The proposed antenna allows integration of electronic circuit up to 10 mm × 10 mm × 0.5 mm. Specific absorption rate distributions, antenna input power, radiation pattern and the transmission channel between the proposed antenna and a half-wavelength dipole were evaluated.

Citation:
A. Garcia-Miquel, S. Curto, N. Vidal, J. M. Lopez-Villegas, F. M. Ramos, and P. Prakash, "Multilayered Broadband Antenna for Compact Embedded Implantable Medical Devices: Design and Characterization," Progress In Electromagnetics Research, Vol. 159, 1-13, 2017.
doi:10.2528/PIER16121507
http://www.jpier.org/PIER/pier.php?paper=16121507

References:
1. Chow, E., M. Morris, and P. Irazoqui, "Implantable RF medical devices: The benefits of highspeed communication and much greater communication distances in biomedical applications," IEEE Microw. Mag., Vol. 14, No. 4, 64-73, Jun. 2013.
doi:10.1109/MMM.2013.2248586

2. Kiourti, A., K. A. Psathas, and K. S. Nikita, "Implantable and ingestible medical devices with wireless telemetry functionalities: A review of current status and challenges: Implantable/Ingestible medical devices," Bioelectromagnetics, Vol. 35, No. 1, 1-15, Jan. 2014.
doi:10.1002/bem.21813

3. Psathas, K., et al., "Operation of ingestible antennas along the gastrointestinal tract: Detuning and performance," 2013 IEEE 13th International Conference on Bioinformatics and Bioengineering (BIBE), 1-4, 2013.

4. Weiss, M. D., J. L. Smith, and J. Bach, "RF coupling in a 433-MHz biotelemetry system for an artificial hip," IEEE Antennas Wirel. Propag. Lett., Vol. 8, 916-919, 2009.
doi:10.1109/LAWP.2009.2028906

5. Crescini, D., E. Sardini, and M. Serpelloni, "Design and test of an autonomous sensor for force measurements in human knee implants," Sens. Actuators Phys., Vol. 166, No. 1, 1-8, Mar. 2011.
doi:10.1016/j.sna.2010.12.010

6. Kawoos, U., X. Meng, M.-R. Tofighi, and A. Rosen, "Too much pressure: Wireless intracranial pressure monitoring and its application in traumatic brain injuries," IEEE Microw. Mag., Vol. 16, No. 2, 39-53, Mar. 2015.
doi:10.1109/MMM.2014.2377585

7. Chow, E. Y., A. L. Chlebowski, S. Chakraborty, W. J. Chappell, and P. P. Irazoqui, "Fully wireless implantable cardiovascular pressure monitor integrated with a medical stent," IEEE Trans. Biomed. Eng., Vol. 57, No. 6, 1487-1496, Jun. 2010.
doi:10.1109/TBME.2010.2041058

8. Marnat, L., M. H. Ouda, M. Arsalan, K. Salama, and A. Shamim, "On-chip implantable antennas for wireless power and data transfer in a Glaucoma-monitoring SoC," IEEE Antennas Wirel. Propag. Lett., Vol. 11, 1671-1674, 2012.
doi:10.1109/LAWP.2013.2240253

9. Karacolak, T., A. Z. Hood, and E. Topsakal, "Design of a dual-band implantable antenna and development of skin mimicking gels for continuous Glucose monitoring," IEEE Trans. Microw. Theory Tech., Vol. 56, No. 4, 1001-1008, Apr. 2008.
doi:10.1109/TMTT.2008.919373

10. Soontornpipit, P., C. M. Furse, and Y. C. Chung, "Design of implantable microstrip antenna for communication with medical implants," IEEE Trans. Microw. Theory Tech., Vol. 52, No. 8, 1944-1951, Aug. 2004.
doi:10.1109/TMTT.2004.831976

11. Kim, J. and Y. Rahmat-Samii, "Planar inverted-F antennas on implantable medical devices: Meandered type versus spiral type," Microw. Opt. Technol. Lett., Vol. 48, No. 3, 567-572, Mar. 2006.
doi:10.1002/mop.21409

12. Kim, J. and Y. Rahmat-Samii, "Implanted antennas inside a human body: Simulations, designs, and characterizations," IEEE Trans. Microw. Theory Tech., Vol. 52, No. 8, 1934-1943, Aug. 2004.
doi:10.1109/TMTT.2004.832018

13. Lee, C.-M., T.-C. Yo, and C.-H. Luo, "Compact broadband stacked implantable antenna for biotelemetry with medical devices," 2006 WAMICON’06 IEEE Annual Wireless and Microwave Technology Conference, 1-4, IEEE, 2006.

14. Liu, W.-C., S.-H. Chen, and C.-M. Wu, "Bandwidth enhancement and size reduction of an implantable PIFA antenna for biotelemetry devices," Microw. Opt. Technol. Lett., Vol. 51, No. 3, 755-757, Mar. 2009.
doi:10.1002/mop.24142

15. Abadia, J., F. Merli, J.-F. Zurcher, J. R. Mosig, and A. K. Skrivervik, "3D-spiral small antenna design and realization for biomedical telemetry in the MICS band," Radioengineering, Vol. 18, No. 4, 359-367, 2009.

16. Bakogianni, S. and S. Koulouridis, "Design of a novel compact printed folded dipole antenna for biomedical applications," 2014 8th European Conference on Antennas and Propagation (EuCAP), 3178-3182, IEEE, 2014.
doi:10.1109/EuCAP.2014.6902503

17. Yilmaz, T., T. Karacolak, and E. Topsakal, "Characterization and testing of a skin mimicking material for implantable antennas operating at ISM band (2.4 GHz–2.48 GHz)," IEEE Antennas Wirel. Propag. Lett., Vol. 7, 418-420, 2008.
doi:10.1109/LAWP.2008.2001736

18. Gosalia, K., G. Lazzi, and M. Humayun, "Investigation of a microwave data telemetry link for a retinal prosthesis," IEEE Trans. Microw. Theory Tech., Vol. 52, No. 8, 1925-1933, Aug. 2004.
doi:10.1109/TMTT.2004.832007

19. Kiourti, A., K. A. Psathas, J. R. Costa, C. A. Fernandes, and K. S. Nikita, "Dual-band implantable antennas for medical telemetry: A fast design methodology and validation for intra-cranial pressure monitoring," Progress In Electromagnetics Research, Vol. 141, 161-183, 2013.
doi:10.2528/PIER13051706

20. Kiourti, A., M. Christopoulou, and K. S. Nikita, "Performance of a novel miniature antenna implanted in the human head for wireless biotelemetry," 2011 IEEE International Symposium on Antennas and Propagation (APSURSI), 392-395, IEEE, 2011.
doi:10.1109/APS.2011.5996726

21. Lee, C.-M., T.-C. Yo, F.-J. Huang, and C.-H. Luo, "Bandwidth enhancement of planar inverted-F antenna for implantable biotelemetry," Microw. Opt. Technol. Lett., Vol. 51, No. 3, 749-752, Mar. 2009.
doi:10.1002/mop.24189

22. Chen, Z. N., G. C. Liu, and T. S. P. See, "Transmission of RF signals between MICS loop antennas in free space and implanted in the human head," IEEE Trans. Antennas Propag., Vol. 57, No. 6, 1850-1854, Jun. 2009.
doi:10.1109/TAP.2009.2019933

23. Anacleto, P., P. M. Mendes, E. Gultepe, and D. H. Gracias, "3D small antenna for energy harvesting applications on implantable micro-devices," 2012 Loughborough Antennas and Propagation Conference (LAPC), 1-4, IEEE, 2012.

24. Vidal, N., S. Curto, J. M. Lopez-Villegas, J. Sieiro, and F. M. Ramos, "Detuning study of implantable antennas inside the human body," Progress In Electromagnetics Research, Vol. 124, 265-283, 2012.
doi:10.2528/PIER11120515

25. Vidal, N., et al., "Design of an implantable broadband antenna for medical telemetry applications," 2013 7th European Conference on Antennas and Propagation (EuCAP), 1133-1136, IEEE, 2013.

26. Furse, C. M., "Biomedical telemetry: Today’s opportunities and challenges," 2009 iWAT 2009 IEEE International Workshop on Antenna Technology, 1-4, IEEE, 2009.

27. Liu, W.-C., F.-M. Yeh, and M. Ghavami, "Miniaturized implantable broadband antenna for biotelemetry communication," Microw. Opt. Technol. Lett., Vol. 50, No. 9, 2407-2409, 2008.
doi:10.1002/mop.23649

28. Guo, Y.-X. and H. S. Tan, "New compact six-band internal antenna," IEEE Antennas Wirel. Propag. Lett., Vol. 3, No. 1, 295-297, Dec. 2004.

29. Karkkainen, M. K., "Meandered multiband PIFA with coplanar parasitic patches," IEEE Microw. Wirel. Compon. Lett., Vol. 15, No. 10, 630-632, Oct. 2005.
doi:10.1109/LMWC.2005.856692

30. Gandara, T. and C. Peixeiro, "Compact triple-band double U-slotted planar inverted-F antenna," IEEE Int. Symp. Pers. Indoor Mob. Radio Commun., 417-421, 2004.

31. Lee, K.-J., T.-K. Lee, and J. W. Lee, "Bandwidth enhanced planar inverted-F antenna with modified ground structure," 2007 APMC 2007 Asia-Pacific Microwave Conference, 1-4, IEEE, 2007.

32. Feick, R., H. Carrasco, M. Olmos, and H. D. Hristov, "PIFA input bandwidth enhancement by changing feed plate silhouette," Electron Lett., Vol. 40, No. 15, 921-922, 2004.
doi:10.1049/el:20045276

33., "Medical Implant Communications Service (MICS) federal register," Rules Regul., Vol. 124, No. 240, 69926-69934, 1999.

34. Luo, J. and R. E. Eitel, "A biocompatible low temperature co-fired ceramic substrate for biosensors," Int. J. Appl. Ceram. Technol., Vol. 11, No. 3, 436-442, May 2014.
doi:10.1111/ijac.12206

35. Baras, T. and A. F. Jacob, "Manufacturing reliability of LTCC millimeter-wave passive components," IEEE Trans. Microw. Theory Tech., Vol. 56, No. 11, 2574-2581, Nov. 2008.
doi:10.1109/TMTT.2008.2005918

36. Golonka, L., P. Bembnowicz, D. Jurkow, K. Malecha, H. Roguszczak, and R. Tadaszak, "Low temperature co-fired ceramics (LTCC) microsystems," Opt. Appl., Vol., Vol. 41, No. 2, 383-388, 2011.

37. Gabriel, S., R. W. Lau, and C. Gabriel, "The dielectric properties of biological tissues: III. Parametric models for the dielectric spectrum of tissues," Phys. Med. Biol., Vol. 41, No. 11, 2271, 1996.
doi:10.1088/0031-9155/41/11/003

38. Smetana, W., B. Balluch, G. Stangl, E. Gaubitzer, M. Edetsberger, and G. Kohler, "A multi-sensor biological monitoring module built up in LTCC-technology," Microelectron. Eng., Vol. 84, No. 5–8, 1240-1243, May 2007.
doi:10.1016/j.mee.2007.01.155

39. Yee, K., "Numerical solution of initial value problems of maxwells equations," IEEE Trans. Antennas Propag., Vol. 14, No. 3, 302-307, May 1966.
doi:10.1109/TAP.1966.1138693

40. Christ, A., et al., "The virtual family — Development of surface-based anatomical models of two adults and two children for dosimetric simulations," Phys. Med. Biol., Vol. 55, No. 2, N23-38, Jan. 21, 2010.
doi:10.1088/0031-9155/55/2/N01

41. Federal Communications Comission, "Evaluating compliance with FCC guidelines for human exposure to radiofrequency electromagnetic fields,", Washington, DC, 2001.

42. Warty, R., M.-R. Tofighi, U. Kawoos, and A. Rosen, "Characterization of implantable antennas for intracranial pressure monitoring: Reflection by and transmission through a scalp phantom," IEEE Trans. Microw. Theory Tech., Vol. 56, No. 10, 2366-2376, Oct. 2008.
doi:10.1109/TMTT.2008.2004254

43. Permana, H., Q. Fang, and W. S. Rowe, "Hermetic implantable antenna inside vitreous humor simulating fluid," Progress In Electromagnetics Research, Vol. 133, 571-590, 2013.
doi:10.2528/PIER12090806

44. Skrivervik, A., J.-F. Zurcher, O. Staub, and J. Mosig, "PCS antenna design: The challenge of miniaturization," IEEE Antennas Propag. Mag., Vol. 43, No. 4, 12-27, 2001.
doi:10.1109/74.951556

45. Skrivervik, A. and F. Merli, "Design strategies for implantable antennas," Proc. Loughborough Antennas & Propagation Conference, Loughborough, UK, 2011.


© Copyright 2014 EMW Publishing. All Rights Reserved