Progress In Electromagnetics Research B
ISSN: 1937-6472
Home | Search | Notification | Authors | Submission | PIERS Home | EM Academy
Home > Vol. 24 > pp. 103-120


By A. M. Al-Hetar, A. B. Mohammad, A. S. M. Supa'at, Z. A. Shamsan, and I. Yulianti

Full Article PDF (1,055 KB)

The 2×2 MMI polymer thermo-optic switch in a high refractive index contrast (0.102) with a new structure design is realized. This device was fabricated using standard fabrication techniques such as coating, photolithography, and dry etching. A crosstalk level of -36.2 dB has been achieved. Meanwhile the extinction ratio of 36.1 dB has been achieved in this device. The polarization dependent loss (PDL) of 0.3 dB and Insertion loss of 1.4 dB were measured at 1550 nm wavelength. In terms of wavelength dependency, the device shows a good performance within C-band wavelength with vacillation of the insertion loss value around 0.88 dB. The power consumption of 1.85 mW was measured to change the state of the switch from the cross to bar state. The measured switching time was 0.7 ms.

A. M. Al-Hetar, A. B. Mohammad, A. S. M. Supa'at, Z. A. Shamsan, and I. Yulianti, "A new structure of mmi polymer thermo-optic switch with a high refractive index contrast," Progress In Electromagnetics Research B, Vol. 24, 103-120, 2010.

1. Duthie, P. J., N. Shaw, M. Wale, and I. Bennion, "Guided wave switch array using electro-optic and carrier depletion effect in Indium Phosphide," Electronics Letters, Vol. 27, No. 19, 1747-1748, 1991.

2. Sneh, A., J. E. Zucker, and B. I. Miller, "Compact low-crosstalk and low propagation loss quantum well Y-branch switches," IEEE Photonics Technology Letters, Vol. 8, No. 12, 1644-1646, 1996.

3. Silberberg, Y., P. Perlmutter, and J. E. Baron, "Digital optical switch," Applied Physics Letters, Vol. 51, No. 16, 1230-1232, 1987.

4. Ehsan, A. A., S. Shaari, and M. K. Abd-Rahman, "1×2 Y-branch plastic optical fiber waveguide coupler for optical accesscard system," Progress In Electromagnetics Research, Vol. 91, 85-100, 2009.

5. Nagai, S., G. Morishima, H. Inayoshi, and K. Utaka, "Multimode interference photonic switches (MIPS)," Journal of Lightwave Technology, Vol. 20, No. 4, 675-680, 2002.

6. Agashe, S. S., K. Shiu, and S. R. Forrest, "Compact polarization-insensitive InGaAsP-InP 2×2 optical switch," IEEE Photonics Technology Letters, Vol. 17, No. 1, 52-54, 2005.

7. Shi, Y. and D. Dai, "Design of compact multimode interference coupler based on deeply-etched SiO2 ridge waveguides," Optics Communications, Vol. 271, No. 2, 404-407, 2007.

8. Heaton, J. M., R. M. Jenkins, D. R. Wight, J. T. Parker, J. C. H. Birheck, and K. P. Hilton, "Novel 1-to-N way integrated optical beam splitters using symmetric mode mixing in GaAs/AlGaAs multimode waveguides," Applied Physics Letters, Vol. 61, No. 15, 1754-1756, 1992.

9. Besse, P. A., M. Bachmann, H. Melchior, L. B. Soldano, and M. K. Smit, "Optical bandwidth and fabrication tolerances of multimode interference couplers," Journal of Lightwave Technology, Vol. 12, No. 6, 1004-1009, 1994.

10. Soldano, L. B. and E. C. M. Pennings, "Optical multimode interference devices based on self-imaging: Principles and applications," Journal of Lightwave Technology, Vol. 13, No. 4, 615-627, 1995.

11. Jenkins, R. M., J. M. Heaton, D. R. Wight, J. R. Parker, J. C. Birbeck, G. W. Smith, and K. P. Hilton, "Novel 1 × N and N × N integrated optical switches using self-imaging multimode GaAs/AIGaAs waveguides," Applied Physics Letters, Vol. 64, No. 6, 684-686, 1994.

12. Diemeer, M. B. J., "Polymer thermo-optic space switches for optical communications," Optical Materials, Vol. 9, 192-200, 1998.

13. Leuthold, J. and C. H. Joyner, "Multimode interference couplers with tunable power splitting ratios," Journal of Lightwave Technology, Vol. 19, No. 5, 700-707, 2001.

14. Al-hetar, A. M., I. Yulianti, A. S. M. Supa'at, and A. B. Mohammad, "Thermo-optic multimode interference switches with air and silicon trenches," Optics Communications, Vol. 21, 4653-4657, 2008.

15. Al-hetar, A. M., A. S. M. Supa'at, A. B. Mohammad, and I. Yulianti, "Crosstalk improvement of a thermo-optic polymer waveguide MZI-MMI switch," Optics Communications, Vol. 281, 5764-5767, 2008.

16. Fujisawa, T. and M. Koshiba, "Theoretical investigation of ultrasmall polarization-insensitive 1 × 2 multimode interference waveguides based on sandwiched structures," IEEE Photonics Technology Letters, Vol. 18, No. 11, 1246-1248, 2006.

17. Kalyanasundaram, N. and P. Muthuchidambaranathan, "Nonlinear pulse propagation in a weakly birefringent optical fiber Part 1: Derivation of coupled nonlinear schrodinger equations (cnlse)," Progress In Electromagnetics Research B, Vol. 19, 205-231, 2010.

18. Manning, R. J., A. Antonopoulos, R. L. Roux, and A. E. Kelly, "Experimental measurement of nonlinear polarisation rotation in semiconductor optical amplifiers," Electronics Letters, Vol. 37, No. 4, 229-230, 2001.

19. Kawachi, M., "Silica waveguides on silicon and their application to integrated-optic components," Optical and Quantum Electron, Vol. 22, No. 5, 391-416, 1990.

20. Lai, Q., W. Hunziker, and H. Melchior, "Low-power compact 2 × 2 thermooptic silica on- silicon waveguide switch with fast response," IEEE Photonics Technology Letters, Vol. 10, No. 5, 681-683, 1998.

21. Supa'at, A. S. M., M. H. Ibrahim, A. B. Mohammad, N. M. Kassim, and E. Ghazali, "A novel thermooptic polymer switch based on directional coupler structure," American Journal of Applied Sciences, Vol. 5, No. 11, 1552-1557, 2008.

22. Al-Hetar, A. M., A. S. M. Supa'at, and A. B. Mohammad, "A ridge waveguide for thermo-optic application," Progress In Electromagnetics Research Letters, Vol. 6, 1-9, 2009.

23. Ma, H., A. Jen, and L. Dalton, "Polymer-based optical waveguides: Materials, processing, and devices," Advanced Materials, Vol. 14, No. 19, 1339-1365, 2002.

24. Cheng, T., G. Drew, B. Gillispie, J. Simko, C. Militello, A.Waldo, and A. Wong, "Vapor deposited thin gold coatings for high temperature electrical contact," IEEE Proceedings of the 18th International Conference on Electrical Contact, 404-413, Chicago, IL, USA, September, 1996.

25. Wang, F., J. Yang, L. Chen, X. Jiang, and M. Wang, "Optical switch based on multimode interference coupler," IEEE Photonics Technology Letters, Vol. 18, No. 2, 421-423, 2006.

26. Gao, L., J. Sun, X. Sun, C. Kang, Y. Yan, and D. Zhang, "Low Switching Power 2 × 2 thermo-optic switch using direct ultraviolet photolithography process," Optics Communications, Vol. 282, 4091-4094, 2009.

27. Yulianti, I., A. S. M. Supa'at, S. M. Idrus, and A. M. Alhetar, "Cosine bend-linear waveguide digital optical switch with parabolic heater," Optics & Laser Technology, Vol. 42, 180-185, 2010.

© Copyright 2010 EMW Publishing. All Rights Reserved