PIER B
 
Progress In Electromagnetics Research B
ISSN: 1937-6472
Home | Search | Notification | Authors | Submission | PIERS Home | EM Academy
Home > Vol. 29 > pp. 191-207

EPSIMU, A TOOL FOR DIELECTRIC PROPERTIES MEASUREMENT OF POROUS MEDIA: APPLICATION IN WET GRANULAR MATERIALS CHARACTERIZATION

By P. Sabouroux and D. Ba

Full Article PDF (613 KB)

Abstract:
The principal aim of this article is the presentation of EpsiMu, a tool for dielectric properties measurement. This general tool can be used to characterize all types of materials, but in this article we apply it to porous or granular materials. The tool consists of a coaxial cell and dedicated software that allow us to reconstruct the permittivity in almost real-time by a de-embedding process. Dielectric permittivity of soils sample was measured using this microwave tool. So, we can then determine the relationship between the dielectric properties and volumetric water content θ of Fontainebleau sand (center of France) and Dune of Pilat sand (Arcachon Bay area, France). The clay effect on Fontainebleau sand is also studied. We discuss the usefulness of several models that link the permittivity to volumetric water content of soil. It is shown that the soil permittivity model is not directly applicable to Fontainebleau sand and Dune of Pilat sand. We find a good match between our results representing the relative permittivity ε'r veversus the volumetric water content θ and the Complex Refractive Index model (CRIM) between 600 MHz and 1 GHz. Alternative regression formulae are proposed. The implication of the determination of volumetric water content, θ, is discussed. A linear relation between the dielectric loss tangent and volumetric water content θ of soils is established.

Citation:
P. Sabouroux and D. Ba, "Epsimu, a Tool for Dielectric Properties Measurement of Porous Media: Application in Wet Granular Materials Characterization," Progress In Electromagnetics Research B, Vol. 29, 191-207, 2011.
doi:10.2528/PIERB10112209

References:
1. Behari, J., Microwave Dielectric Behavior of Wet Soils, Vol. 8, Springer, 2005.
doi:10.1016/0022-1694(95)02970-2

2. Njoku, E. G. and D. Entekhabi, "Passive microwave remote sensing of soil moisture," Journal of Hydrology, Vol. 184, 101-129, 1996.
doi:10.1109/TGRS.1982.350412

3. Njoku, E. G. and P. E. O'Neill, "Multifrequency microwave radiometer measurements of soil moisture," IEEE Transactions on Geoscience and Remote Sensing, Vol. GE-20, No. 4, 468-475, 1982.
doi:10.1109/TGRS.1982.350412

4. Daniels, D. J., Ground Pentrating Radar, 2nd Ed., IEE Radar, Sonar and Navigation, Series, 2004.
doi:10.1016/S0022-1694(96)03244-1

5. Van Overmeeran, R. A., J. C. Gehrels, and S. V. Sariowa, "Ground penetrating radar for determining volumetric soil water content: Results of comparative measurements at two test sites," J. Hydrol., Vol. 197, 316-338, 1997.
doi:10.1029/WR016i003p00574

6. Topp, G. C., J. L. Davis, and A. P. Annan, "Electromagnetic determination of soil water content: Measurements in coaxial transmission lines," Water Resources Research, Vol. 16, No. 3, 574-582, 1980.
doi:10.1109/36.387598

7. Peplinski, N. R., F. T. Ulaby, and M. C. Dobson, "Dielectric properties of soils in the 0.3--1.3 GHz range," IEEE Transactions on Geoscience and Remote Sensing, Vol. 33, No. 3, 803-807, 1995.
doi:10.1109/TGRS.1980.350304

8. Wang, J. R. and T. J. Schmugge, "An empirical model for the complex permittivity of soil as a function of water content," IEEE Transactions on Geoscience and Remote Sensing, Vol. GE-18, 288-295, 1980.
doi:10.1109/36.582002

9. Sabburg, J., J. A. R. Ball, and N. H. Hancock, "Dielectric behavior of moist swelling clay soils at microwave frequencies," IEEE Transactions on Geoscience and Remote Sensing, Vol. 35, No. 3, 784-787, 1997.
doi:10.1029/98WR02038

10. Sakaki, T., K. Sugihara, T. Adachi, K. Nishida, and W. Lin, "Application of time domain reflectometry to determinations of volumetric water content in rock," Water Resources Research, Vol. 34, No. 10, 2631-2632, 1998.
doi:10.1029/2001WR000923

11. West, L. J., K. Handley, Y. Huang, and M. Pokar, "Radar frequency dispersion in sandstone: Implication for determination of moisture and clay content," Water Resources Research, Vol. 39, 1026, 2003.
doi:10.1080/02626660109492834

12. Persson, R., M. Berndtsson, and B. Sivakumar, "Using neural networks for calibration of time domain reflectometry measurements," Hydrological Sciences Journal, Vol. 46, No. 3, 389-398, 2001.
doi:10.1080/02626660109492834

13. Ba, D. and P. Sabouroux, "EpsiMu a tool for permittivity and permeability measurement in microwave domain at real time of all materials, application to solid and semi-solid materials," Microwave and Optical Technology Letters, Vol. 52, No. 12, 2643-2648, 2010.
doi:10.1111/j.1365-2389.1996.tb01410.x

14. Perdok, U. D., B. Kroesbergen, and M. A. Hilhorst, "Influence of gravimetric water content and bulk density on the dielectric properties of soil," European Journal of Soil Science, Vol. 47, 367-371, 1996.
doi:10.1111/j.1365-2389.1996.tb01410.x

15. Gu├ęguen, Y. and V. Palciauskas, Introduction to the Physics of Rocks, Princeton University Press, 1994.
doi:10.1088/0022-3727/31/13/013

16. Zakri, T., J. P. Laurent, and M. Vauclin, "Theoritical evidence for `Lichtenecker's mixture formulae,' based on effective medium theory ," Journal of Physics D: Applied Physics, Vol. 31, 1589-1594, 1998.
doi:10.1111/j.1365-2478.2008.00724.x

17. Brovelli, A. and G. Cassiani, "Effective permittivity of porous media: A critical analysis of the complex refractive index model," Geophysical Prospecting, Vol. 56, 715-727, 2008.
doi:10.1109/PROC.1974.9388

18. Birchak, J. R., C. G. Gardner, J. E. Hipp, and J. M. Victor, "High dielectric constant microwave probes for sensing soil moisture," Proceeding of the IEEE, Vol. 62, 93-98, 1974.
doi:10.1109/PROC.1974.9388

19. Roth, K., R. Schulin, H. Fluher, and W. Attinger, "Calibration of time-domain reflectometry for water content measurement using a composite dielectric approach," Water Resources Research, Vol. 26, No. 10, 2267-2273, 1990.

20. HalliKainen, M. T., F. T. Ulaby, M. C. Dobson, M. A. ElRayes, and L. Wu, "Microwave dielectric behaviour of wet soil Part 1: Empirical models and experimental observations," IEEE Transactions on Geoscience and Remote Sensing, Vol. 55, No. 1, 218-222, 1985.

21. Agilent, Agilent de-embedding and embedding S-parameter networks using a vector network analyzer, Technical Report, Agilent Technologies, 2000.

22. Nicolson, A. M. and G. F. Ross, "Measurement of the intrinsic materials by time domain techniques," IEEE Transactions on Microwave Theory and Techniques, Vol. 19, No. 4, 377-382, 1970.
doi:10.1109/PROC.1974.9382

23. Weir, W. B., "Automatic measurement of complex dielectric constant and permeability at microwave frequencies," Proceeding of the IEEE, Vol. 62, No. 1, 33-36, 1974.
doi:10.1109/22.57336

24. Baker-Jarvis, J., E. J. Vanzura, and W. A. Kissick, "Improved technique for determining complex permittivity with the transmission/reflection method ," IEEE Transactions on Microwave Theory and Techniques, Vol. 38, No. 8, 1096-1103, 1990.
doi:10.1109/TMTT.2003.810139

25. Williams, T. C., M. A. Stuchly, and P. Saville, "Modified transmission-reflection method for measuring constitutive parameters of thin flexible high-loss materials," IEEE Transactions on Microwave Theory and Techniques, Vol. 51, No. 5, 1560-1566, 2003.
doi:10.1109/19.744310

26. Trabelsi, S., A. Krazewski, and S. O. Nelson, "New density-independent calibration function for microwave sensing of moisture content in particulate materials," IEEE Transactions on Instrumentation and Measurement, Vol. 47, 613-622, 1998.
doi:10.1109/19.744310

27. Nelson, S. O., "Density-permittivity relationships for powdered and granular materials," IEEE Transactions on Instrumentation and Measurement, 2005.

28. Kupfer, K., Electromagnetic Aquametry, Springer, 2004.
doi:10.1016/S0926-9851(98)00017-2

29. Sarrenketo, T., "Electrical properties of water in clay and silty soils," Journal of Applied Geophysics, Vol. 40, 73-88, 1998.
doi:10.1109/36.142943

30. Scott, W. R. and G. S. Smith, "Measured electrical constituve parameters of soil as functions of frequency and moisture content," IEEE Transactions on Geoscience and Remote Sensing, Vol. 30, No. 3, 621-623, 1992.
doi:10.1109/36.142943


© Copyright 2010 EMW Publishing. All Rights Reserved