PIER B
 
Progress In Electromagnetics Research B
ISSN: 1937-6472
Home | Search | Notification | Authors | Submission | PIERS Home | EM Academy
Home > Vol. 44 > pp. 427-445

NEW ALGORITHMS FOR THE SPECIFIC ABSORPTION RATE NUMERICAL EVALUATION BASED ON SPHERICAL AVERAGING VOLUMES

By L. Catarinucci and L. Tarricone

Full Article PDF (1,303 KB)

Abstract:
The numerical calculation of the Specific Absorption Rate (SAR) averaged over a certain tissue mass is a common practice when evaluating the potential health risk due to the human exposure to electromagnetic sources. Nevertheless, SAR values are strongly influenced by many factors such as, for instance, the shape of the volume containing the reference mass, the spatial discretization step, or the treatment of internal air, just to mention some of them: different choices can induce significant discrepancies. In this work an overview on some of the most commonly adopted SAR algorithms is firstly presented, and a discussion on their potential differences reported. Then, based on a spherical volume approach, some new algorithms are proposed. All the algorithms are then used to evaluate the SAR both in artificially generated test cases and in some practical human-antenna interaction problems. The result comparison highlights relevant discrepancies and enforces the necessity of a reasoned standardization of the techniques for the SAR calculation.

Citation:
L. Catarinucci and L. Tarricone, "New Algorithms for the Specific Absorption Rate Numerical Evaluation Based on Spherical Averaging Volumes," Progress In Electromagnetics Research B, Vol. 44, 427-445, 2012.
doi:10.2528/PIERB12091502

References:
1. IEEE C95.1-2006, "Standard for safety levels with respect to human exposure to radiofrequency electromagnetic fields, 3 kHz to 300 GHz,", 28.4, 2006.

2. ICNIRP, "Guidelines for limiting exposure to time-varying electric, magnetic and electromagnetic fields (up to 300 GHz)," Health Phys.: Intern. Comm. on Non-ionizing Radiation Protection (ICNIRP), Vol. 74, 494-522, 1998.

3. IEEE C95.1-1999, "IEEE standard for safety levels with respect to human exposure to radiofrequency electromagnetic fields, 3 kHz to 300 GHz,", IEEE Standard C95.1, 1999.
doi:10.1109/TMTT.2004.832689

4. Gandhi, O. P. and G. Kang, "Inaccuracies of a plastic ‘pinna’ SAM for SAR testing of cellular telephones against IEEE and ICNIRP safety guidelines," IEEE Transactions on Microwave Theory and Techniques, Vol. 52, No. 8, 2004-2012, 2004.
doi:10.1109/TEMC.2006.873870

5. Beard, B. B., W. Kainz, T. Onishi, T. Iyama, S. Watanabe, O. Fujiwara, J. Wang, G. Bit-Babik, A. Faraone, J. Wiart, A. Christ, N. Kuster, A.-K. Lee, H. Kroeze, M. Siegbahn, J. Keshvari, H. Abrishamkar, W. Simon, D. Manteuffel, and N. Nikoloski, "Comparisons of computed mobile phone induced SAR in the SAM phantom to that in anatomically correct models of the human head," IEEE Transactions on Electromagnetic Compatibility, Vol. 48, No. 2, 397-407, 2006.

6. Burkhardt, M. and N. Kuster, "Appropriate modeling of the ear for compliance testing of handheld MTE with SAR safety limits at 900/1800 MHz," IEEE Transaction on Microwave Theory and Techniques, Vol. 48, No. 11, Part 1, 1927-1934, 2000.

7. ANSI C95.1-1982, "American national standard safety levels with respect to human exposure to radiofrequency electromagnetic fields, 300 kHz to 100 GHz,", The Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers, Inc., New York, NY, 1982.
doi:10.1109/TEMC.2006.877784

8. Hirata, A., M. Fujimoto, T. Asano, J. Wang, O. Fujiwara, and T. Shiozawa, "Correlation between maximum temperature increase and peak SAR with different average schemes and masses," IEEE Transactions on Electromagnetic Compatibility, Vol. 48, No. 3, 569-577, 2006.

9. Laakso, I., T. Uusitupa, and S. Ilvonen, "Comparison of SAR calculation algorithms for the finite-difference time-domain method," Phys. Med. Biol., Vol. 55, No. 421, 2010.

10. Catarinucci, L. and L. Tarricone, "Specific absorption rate (SAR) numerical evaluation: A critical discussion," IEEE MTT-S International Microwave Symposium Digest, IMS 2007, 1349-1352 , Honolulu, HI, 2007.
doi:10.1109/22.899030

11. Nikita, K. S., et al., "A study of uncertainties in modeling antenna performance and power absorption in the head of a cellular phone user," IEEE Transaction on Microwave Theory and Techniques, Vol. 48, No. 12, 2676-2685, 2000.
doi:10.1109/TMTT.2003.821232

12. Wang, J., O. Fujiwara, S. Watanabe, and Y. Yamanaka, "Computation with a parallel FDTD system of human-body effect on electromagnetic absorption for portable telephones," IEEE Transactions on Microwave Theory and Techniques, Vol. 52, No. 1, 53-58, 2004.
doi:10.1109/74.789742

13. Caputa, K., M. Okoniewski, and M. A. Stuchly, "An algorithm for computations of the power deposition in human tissue," IEEE Antennas and Propagation Magazine, Vol. 41, 102-107, Aug. 1999.

14. Lee, A. and J. Pack, "Study of the tissue volume for spatial-peak mass-averaged SAR evaluation," IEEE Transactions on EMC,, Vol. 44, No. 2, May 2002.

15. IEEE C95.3-2002, "IEEE recommended practice for measurements and computations of radio frequency electromagnetic fields with respect to human exposure to such fields, 100 kHz-300 GHz,", IEEE Standards C95.3, 2002.

16. Otin, R. and H. Gromat, "Specific absorption rate computations with a nodal-based finite element formulation," Progress In Electromagnetics Research, Vol. 128, 399-418, 2012.
doi:10.1109/TEMC.2011.2109005

17. Wang, M., L. Lin, J. Chen, D. Jackson, W. Kainz, Y. Qi, and P. Jarmuszewski, "Evaluation and optimization of the specific absorption rate for multiantenna systems," IEEE Transactions on Electromagnetic Compatibility, Vol. 53, No. 3, 628-637, Aug. 2011.
doi:10.1093/oxfordjournals.rpd.a006699

18. Catarinucci, L., P. Palazzari, and L. Tarricone, "Parallel FDTD simulation of radiobase antennae," Radiation Protection Dosimetry, Vol. 97, No. 4, 409-413, 2001.

19. Catarinucci, L., P. Palazzari, and L. Tarricone, "A parallel FDTD tool for the solution of large dosimetric problems: An application to the interaction between humans and radiobase antennas," IEEE MTT-S International Microwave Symposium Digest, Vol. 3, 1755-1758, 2002.
doi:10.1109/TMTT.2003.808695

20. Catarinucci, L., P. Palazzari, and L. Tarricone, "Human exposure to the near field of radiobase antennas --- A full-wave solution using parallel FDTD," IEEE Transactions on Microwave Theory and Techniques, Vol. 51, No. 3, 935-940, 2003.

21. Catarinucci, L., P. Palazzari, and L. Tarricone, "On the use of numerical phantoms in the study of the human-antenna interaction problem," IEEE Antennas and Wireless Propagation Letters, Vol. 2, 43-45, 2003.

22. Catarinucci, L., P. Palazzari, and L. Tarricone, "A parallel variable-mesh FDTD algorithm for the solution of large electromagnetic problems," Proc. of 19th IEEE International Parallel and Distributed Processing Symposium, IPDPS 2005, Denver, CO, 2005.

23. Catarinucci, L. and L. Tarricone, "A parallel graded-mesh FDTD algorithm for human-antenna interaction problems," International, Vol. 15, No. 1, 45-52, 2009.
doi:10.1118/1.597290

24. Zubal, I. G., C. R. Harrell, E. O. Smith, Z. Rattner, G. Gindi, and P. B. Hoffer, "Computerized three-dimensional segmented human anatomy," Medical Physics, Vol. 21, No. 2, 299-302, 1994.


© Copyright 2010 EMW Publishing. All Rights Reserved