Progress In Electromagnetics Research B
ISSN: 1937-6472
Home | Search | Notification | Authors | Submission | PIERS Home | EM Academy
Home > Vol. 49 > pp. 155-176


By N. Faruk, A. Ayeni, and Y. A. Adediran

Full Article PDF (570 KB)

Demand for wireless communication technologies and systems keep increasing and has reached the peak where the capacity can only be achieved by improving spectrum utilization. The spectrum allocated to TV broadcast systems can be shared by wireless data services through exploiting spatial reuse opportunities (Spatial TV white space). Path loss models are used extensively in signal prediction, coverage optimization and interference analysis. Recently, it is being used in estimating distances for safe operation of secondary users in TV white space. Peculiarities of these models give rise to high prediction errors when deployed in a different environment other than the one initially built for. It is however not very clear which model gives the best fit and what the penalties are for using the models outside the intended coverage area. In this paper, we assess the fitness of nine empirical widely used path loss models using five novel metrics to gauge their performance. In order to achieve this, field strength measurements were conducted in the VHF and UHF regions along six different routes that spanned through the urban, suburban and rural areas of Kwara State, Nigeria. A program was developed in VB 6.0 language to compute the path losses for the empirical models. The measurement results were converted to path losses and are compared with the model's prediction. The results show that no single model provides a good fit consistently. However, Hata and Davidson models provide good fitness along some selected routes with measured RMSE values of less than 10 dB. ITU-R P.1546-4, Walfisch Ikegami (WI), Egli, CCIR and FSPL perform woefully, with higher RMSE and SC-RMSE (Spread Corrected RMSE) values. Further analysis on the error spread as a function of distance along 60 km route revealed that Hata and Davidson models show symmetry up to about 30 km with slight divergence between 24 km and 30 km, after which Davidson model gives lower prediction error along the route. The prediction errors for Davidson model distributes nearly symmetrically around the mean error of 2.15 dB. It is noteworthy that the Gaussian error distribution within the window of ±5 dB dominates the frequency counts. However, the error counts for CCIR model closely follow normal distribution with a mean error of -6.37 dB but Hata, FSPL, Walfisch Ikegami and ITU-R P. 529-3 models do not follow normal distribution curve.

N. Faruk, A. Ayeni, and Y. A. Adediran, "On the Study of Empirical Path Loss Models for Accurate Prediction of Tv Signal for Secondary Users," Progress In Electromagnetics Research B, Vol. 49, 155-176, 2013.

1. FCC, "Second report and order and memorandum opinion and order,", ET Docket No. 08-260, Nov. 2008.

2. Kang, K. M., J. C. Park, S. I. Chio, and B. J. Jeong, "Deployment and coverage of cognitive radio networks in TV white space," IEEE Communications Magazine, Vol. 50, No. 12, 88-94, Dec. 2011.

3. Ayeni, A. A., N. Faruk, L. Olawoyin, M. Y. Muhammad, and M. I. Gumel, "Comparative assessments of some selected existing radio propagation models: A study of Kano City, Nigeria," European Journal of Scientific Research, Vol. 70, No. 1, 120-127, Euro Journals Publishing, Inc., 2012, http://www.europeanjournalofscientificresearch.com/ISSUES/E-JSR 70 1 12.pdf.

4. Camp, J., J. Robinson, C. Steger, and E. Knightly, "Measurement driven deployment of a two tier urban mesh access networks Proceedings of the 4th International Conference on Mobile," Systems, Applications and Services (Mobisys'06), 96-109, ACM, New York, USA, 2006.

5. Hata, M., "Empirical formula for propagation loss in land mobile radio services," IEEE Trans. Vehicular Technology, Vol. 29, No. 3, 317-325, Aug. 1980.

6. COST 231, "Urban transmission loss models for mobile radio in the 900 and 1800MHz bands (revision 2)," COST 231 TD(90) 119 Rev. 2.

7. Walfisch, J. and H. L. Bertoni, "A theoretical model of UHF propagation in urban environment," IEEE Trans. Antennas Propagation, Vol. 36, 1788-1796, 1988.

8. Ikegmi, F., S. Yoshida, T. Tacheuchi, and M. Umehira, "Propagation factors controlling mean field strength on urbn street," IEEE Trans. Antennas Propagation, Vol. 32, No. 8, 822-829, 1980.

9. Egli, J. J., "Radio propagation above 40MHz over irregular terrain," Proc. IRE, Vol. 45, No. 10, 1381-1391, 1957.

10. ITU-R P.529-3, "VHF/UHF propagation data and prediction methods required for the terrestrial land mobile services,", 1994.

11. ITU-R P.1546-4, "Method for point-to-area predictions for terrestrial services in the frequency range 30MHz to 3000 MHz,", 2009, available on http://www.itu.int/rec/R-REC-P.1546-4-200910-I/en [Accessed on 31/01/2013].

12. Anang, K. A., P. B. Rapajic, R. Wu, L. Bello, and T. I. Eneh, "Cellular system information capacity change at higher frequencies due to propagation loss and system parameters," Progress In Electromagnetics Research B, Vol. 44, 191-221, 2012.

13., , CCIR: http://w3.antd.nist.gov/wctg/manet/calcmodels r1.pdf[Accessed on 13/11/2012].

14. Davidson, "A report on technology independent methodology for the modeling, simulation and empirical verification of wireless communications system performance in noise and interference limited systems operating on frequencies between 30 and 1500 MHz," IEEE Vehicular Technology Society Propagation Committee, TIA TR8 Working Group, May 1997.

15. Feher, K., Wireless Digital Communications Modulation & Spread Spectrum Applications, Prentice Hall, Inc., USA, 1995.

16. Phillips, C., D. Sicker, and D. Grunwald, "Bounding the practical error of path loss models," International Journal of Antennas and Propagation, Vol. 2012, 1-21, 2012, doi:10.1155/2012/754158.

17. Phillips, C., D. Sicker, and D. Grunwald, "Bounding the error of path loss models," New Frontiers in Dynamic Spectrum Access Networks (DySPAN), IEEE Symposium on Dynamic Spectrum Access, 71-82, May 2011.

18. Delisle, G. Y., J. P. Lefevre, M. Lecours, and J. Y. Chouinard, "Propagation loss pre diction: A comparative study W with application to the mobile radio channel," IEEE Trans. Vehicular Technology, Vol. 34, No. 2, 86-96, 1985.

19. Sharma, P. K. and R. Singh, "Comparative analysis of propagation path loss models with field measured databases," International Journal of Engineering Science and Technology, Vol. 2, 2008-2013, 2010.

20. Rao, T. R., M. S. V. Bhaskara, M. V. S. N. Prasad, M. Sain, A. Iqbal, and D. R. Lakshmi, "Mobile radio propagation path loss studies at VHF/UHF bands in Southern India," IEEE Transactions on Broadcasting, Vol. 46, No. 2, 158-164, Jun. 2000.

21. Prasad, M. V. S. N. and I. Ahmed, "Comparison of some path loss prediction methods with VHF/UHF measurements," IEEE Transactions on Broadcasting, Vol. 43, No. 4, 459-486, 1997.

22. Achtzehn, A., J. Riihijarvi, G. Martinez, M. Petrova, and P. Mahonen, "Improving coverage prediction for primary multi-transmitter networks operating in the TV white spaces," 9th Annual IEEE Communication Society Conference on Sensor, Mesh and Adhoc Communication and Networks (SECON), 547-555, 2012.

23. Kim, H., H. Sunahara, and A. Kato, "Study on environmental improvement for DTV white space utilization with narrow band system," International Journal of Network and Communications, Vol. 2, No. 4, 38-46, 2012.

24. Harrison, K., S. Mishra, and A. Sahai, "How much white-space capacity is there?," Proceedings of IEEE DySPAN, 1-10, Apr. 2010.

25. Van de Beek, J., J. Riihijarvi, A. Achtzehn, and P. Mahonen, "TV white space in Europe," IEEE Transactions on Communication Mobile Computing, Vol. 11, No. 2, 178-188, Feb. 2012.

26. Nekovee, M., "Quantifying the availability of TV white spaces for cognitive radio operation in the UK," Proc. IEEE ICC 2009, Workshop, 1-5, Cognitive Wireless Networks and Systems, Dresden, Germany, Jun. 2009.

27. Makris, D., G. Gardikis, and A. Kourtis, "Quantifying TV white space capacity a geolocation-based approach," IEEE Communication Magazine, Vol. 50, No. 9, 145-152, Sep. 2012.

28. Abhayawardhana, V. S., I. J. Wassell, D. Crosbsy, M. P. Sellars, and M. G. Brown, "Comparison of empirical propagation path loss models for fixed wireless access systems," IEEE Vehicular Technology Conference, Vol. 1, 73-77, Spring, 2005.

29. Blaunstein, N., D. Censor, D. Katz, A. Freedman, and I. Matityahu, "Radio propagation in rural residential areas with vegetation," Progress In Electromagnetics Research, Vol. 40, 131-153, 2003.

30. Parson, J. D., Mobile Radio Propagation Channel, Wiley, Chichester, West Sussex, England, 1992.

31. COGEU, "Cognitive radio systems for efficient sharng of TV white spaces in European context,", 71-101, Jan. 2010-Dec. 2012, available on http://www.ict-cogeu.eu/pdf/COGEU D7.1%20(ICT 248560).pdf [Accessed on 10/04/2012].

32. Surajudeen-Bakinde, N. T., N. Faruk, A. A. Ayeni, M. Y. Muhammad, and M. I. Gumel, "Comparison of propagation models for GSM 1800 and WCDMA systems in selected urban areas of Nigeria," International Journal of Applied Information Systems (IJAIS), Vol. 2, No. 1, May 2012.

33. Shamsan, Z. A., T. A. Rahman, and A. M. Al-Hetar, "Point-point fixed wireless and broadcasting services coexistence with IMT-advanced system," Progress In Electromagnetics Research, Vol. 122, 537-555, 2012.

© Copyright 2010 EMW Publishing. All Rights Reserved