PIER
 
Progress In Electromagnetics Research
ISSN: 1070-4698, E-ISSN: 1559-8985
Home | Search | Notification | Authors | Submission | PIERS Home | EM Academy
Home > Vol. 105 > pp. 445-461

ELECTROMAGNETIC OPTIMAL DESIGN AND PREPARATION OF BROADBAND CERAMIC RADOME MATERIAL WITH GRADED POROUS STRUCTURE

By F. Chen, Q. Shen, and L. Zhang

Full Article PDF (932 KB)

Abstract:
Silicon nitride (Si3N4) ceramic is a promising ultra-high speed (> 5 mach) broadband (1-18 GHz) radome material because of its excellent high-temperature resistance, good mechanical and dielectric properties. Si3N4 ceramics with A-sandwich wall structure are successfully applied to passive self-direction high transmission efficiency broadband radome (1-18 GHz). In the present study, a novel graded porous wall structure for broadband radome is promoted. The feasibility of using this structure is carried out by a computer aided design for the wall structure based on the microwave equivalent network method. By optimizing the layer number (n), structural coefficient (p), thickness (d) and dielectric constant (ε) of each layer, the power transmission efficiency at 1-18 GHz of graded porous Si3N4 ceramic radome is calculated. Si3N4 ceramics with graded porous structure are then prepared according to the design. The prepared sample exhibits a good graded porous structure with the porosity range from ~ 2% to 63%. The tested power transmission efficiency at 1-18 GHz for the obtained sample matches well with the calculation results, indicating that the graded porous structure is feasible for the broadband radome application.

Citation:
F. Chen, Q. Shen, and L. Zhang, " electromagnetic optimal design and preparation of broadband ceramic radome material with graded porous structure ," Progress In Electromagnetics Research, Vol. 105, 445-461, 2010.
doi:10.2528/PIER10012005
http://www.jpier.org/PIER/pier.php?paper=10012005

References:
1. Persson, K., M. Gustafsson, and G. Kristensson, "Reconstruction and visualization of equivalent currents on a radome using an integral representation formulation," Progress In Electromagnetics Research B, Vol. 20, 65-90, 2008.
doi:10.2528/PIERB10012109

2. Sukharevsky, O. I. and V. A. Vasilets, "Scattering of reflector antenna with conic dielectric radome," Progress In Electromagnetics Research B, Vol. 4, 159-169, 2008.
doi:10.2528/PIERB08011404

3. Persson, K. and M. Gustafsson, "Reconstruction of equivalent currents using a near-field data transformation --- With radome applications," Progress In Electromagnetics Research, Vol. 54, 179-198, 2005.
doi:10.2528/PIER04111602

4. Ceramic Radomes for Tactical Missile Systems, www.ceradynethermo.com.

5. Shen, Z. J., et al., "Formation of tough interlockingmicrostructures in silicon nitrideceramics by dynamic ripening," Nature, Vol. 417, 266-269, 2002.
doi:10.1038/417266a

6. Peterson, I. M. and T. Y. Tien, "Effect of the grain boundary thermal expansion coe±cient on the fracture toughness in silicon nitride," J. Am. Ceram. Soc., Vol. 78, No. 9, 2345-2352, 1995.
doi:10.1111/j.1151-2916.1995.tb08667.x

7. Riley, F. L., "Silicon nitride and related materials," J. Am. Ceram. Soc., Vol. 83, No. 2, 245-265, 2000.
doi:10.1111/j.1151-2916.2000.tb01182.x

8. Pyzik, A. J. and D. R. Beaman, "Microstructure and properties of self-reinforced silicon nitride," J. Am. Ceram. Soc., Vol. 76, No. 11, 2737-2744, 1993.
doi:10.1111/j.1151-2916.1993.tb04010.x

9. Diaz, A., S. Hampshire, J. F. Yang, T. Ohji, and S. Kanzaki, "Comparison of mechanical properties of silicon nitrides with controlled porosities produced by different fabrication routes," J. Am. Ceram. Soc., Vol. 88, No. 3, 698-706, 2005.
doi:10.1111/j.1551-2916.2005.00132.x

10. Shan, S. Y., J. F. Yang, J. Q. Gao, W. H. Zhang, and Z. H. Jin, "Porous silicon nitride ceramics prepared by reduction{nitridation of silica," J. Am. Ceram. Soc., Vol. 88, No. 9, 2594-2596, 2005.
doi:10.1111/j.1551-2916.2005.00444.x

11. Kawai, C. and A. Yamakawa, "Effect of porosity and microstructure on the strength of Si3N4: Designed microstructure for high strength, high thermal shock resistance, and facile machining ," J. Am. Ceram. Soc., Vol. 80, No. 10, 2705-2708, 1997.
doi:10.1111/j.1151-2916.1997.tb03179.x

12. Lam, D. C. C., F. F. Lange, and A. G. Evans, "Mechanical properties of partially dense alumina produced from powder compacts," J. Am. Ceram. Soc., Vol. 77, No. 8, 2113-2117, 1994.
doi:10.1111/j.1151-2916.1994.tb07105.x

13. Nie, X.-C., N. Yuan, L.-W. Li, T. S. Yeo, and Y.-B. Gan, "Fast analysis of electromagnetic transmission through arbitrarily shaped airborne radomes using precorrected-FFT method ," Progress In Electromagnetics Research, Vol. 54, 37-59, 2005.
doi:10.2528/PIER04100601

14. Paris, D. T., "Computer-aided radome analysis," IEEE Trans. Antennas and Propag., Vol. 18, No. 1, 7-15, January 1970.
doi:10.1109/TAP.1970.1139614

15. Gu, J., Y. Fan, Y. H. Zhang, and D. K. Wu, "Novel 3-D half-mode SICC resonator for microwave and millimeter-wave applications," Journal of Electromagnetic Waves and Applications, Vol. 23, No. 11-12, 1429-1439, 2009.
doi:10.1163/156939309789476338

16. Mortensen, A. and S. Suresh, "Functionally graded metals and metal-ceramic composites. 1. Processing," Int. Mater. Rev., Vol. 40, No. 6, 239-265, 1995.

17. Hasar, U. C., O. Simsek, and M. Gulnahar, "Simple procedure to simultaneously evaluate the thickness of and resistive losses in transmission lines from uncalibrated scattering parameter measurements," Journal of Electromagnetic Waves and Applications, Vol. 23, No. 8-9, 999-1010, 2009.

18. Kedar, A. and U. K. Revankar, "Parametric study of flat sandwich multilayer radome," Progress In Electromagnetics Research, Vol. 66, 253-265, 2006.
doi:10.2528/PIER06111202

19. Kedar, A., K. S. Beenamole, and U. K. Revankar, "Performance appraisal of active phased array antenna in presence of a multilayer flat sandwich radome," Progress In Electromagnetics Research, Vol. 66, 157-171, 2006.
doi:10.2528/PIER06111203

20. Kong, J. A., Electromagnetic Wave Theory, Wiley-Interscience, May 2008.

21. Fuerholz, P. and A. Murk, "Design of a broadband transition using the constant impedance structure approach," Progress In Electromagnetics Research Letter, Vol. 7, 69-78, 2009.
doi:10.2528/PIERL09010703

22. Kozakoff, D. J., Analysis of Radome Enclosed Antennas, Artech House, Norwood, MA, 1997.

23. Sunil, S., K. S. Venu, S. M. Vaitheeswaran, and U. Raveendranath, "A modi¯ed expression for determining the wall thickness of monolithic half-wave radomes," Microw. Opt. Techn. Lett., Vol. 30, No. 5, 350-352, 2001.
doi:10.1002/mop.1311

24. Chen, F., Q. Shen, F. Q. Yan, and L. M. Zhang, "Spark plasma sintering of α-Si3N4 ceramics with MgO-AlPO4 as sintering additives," Mater. Chem. Phys., Vol. 107, 67-71, 2008.
doi:10.1016/j.matchemphys.2007.06.042

25. Chen, F., Q. Shen, F. Q. Yan, and L. M. Zhang, "Pressureless sintering of α-Si3N4 porous ceramics using H3PO4 pore-forming agent ," J. Am. Ceram. Soc., Vol. 90, No. 8, 2379-2383, 2007.
doi:10.1111/j.1551-2916.2007.01800.x

26. Chen, F., Q. Shen, F. Q. Yan, and L. M. Zhang, "Preparation of zirconium pyrophosphate bonded silicon nitride porous ceramics," Mater. Sci. Technol., Vol. 22, No. 8, 915-918, 2006.
doi:10.1179/174328406X100699

27. Chou, Y. H., M. J. Jeng, Y. H. Lee, and Y. G. Jan, "Measurement of RF PCB dielectric properties and losses," Progress In Electromagnetics Research Letter, Vol. 4, 139-148, 2008.
doi:10.2528/PIERL08072403

28. Audone, B., A. Delogu, and P. Morindo, "Radome design and measurements," IEEE Trans. Instrument. Measure., Vol. 37, No. 2, 292-295, 1988.
doi:10.1109/19.6069

29. Meng, H. F. and W. B. Dou, "A hybrid method for the analysis of radome-enclosed horn antenna," Progress In Electromagnetics Research, Vol. 90, 219-233, 2009.
doi:10.2528/PIER08122502


© Copyright 2014 EMW Publishing. All Rights Reserved