Progress In Electromagnetics Research
ISSN: 1070-4698, E-ISSN: 1559-8985
Home | Search | Notification | Authors | Submission | PIERS Home | EM Academy
Home > Vol. 103 > pp. 355-370


By P. L. Carro Ceballos, J. De Mingo Sanz, and P. G. Dúcar

Full Article PDF (628 KB)

A new Mean Effective Gain (MEG) expression using SphericalWave Expansions (SWE) is presented in order to evaluate the impact of mobile environments on radiating structures. The proposed approach takes into account the pattern polarization and transforms a continuous functional optimization problem into an approximate discrete formulation. It allows to synthesize efficient antenna radiation patterns in terms of the Mean Effective Gain when it is combined with modern heuristic optimization techniques. In addition, antenna performance limits are evaluated by means of certain bounds. These depend on the modal number which is required to describe accurately far fields and depend ultimately on the antenna size. The method estimates the optimum patterns for two different wireless scenarios that are characterized by the statistical probability density functions of incoming waves and particularized in the case of Gaussian statistics. The numerical evaluation has been performed by means of the Particle Swarm Optimization (PSO) technique, which is slightly modified to include a specific constrain and whose parameters have been computed previously by solving a canonical problem. Finally, representative results in outdoor and mixed wireless scenarios are discussed, pointing out some useful consequences in antenna design.

P. L. Carro Ceballos, J. De Mingo Sanz, and P. G. Dúcar, "Radiation pattern synthesis for maximum mean effective gain with spherical wave expansions and particle swarm techniques," Progress In Electromagnetics Research, Vol. 103, 355-370, 2010.

1. Khaleghi, A., "Diversity techniques with parallel dipole antennas: Radiation pattern analysis," Progress In Electromagnetics Research, Vol. 64, 23-42, 2004.

2. Plicanic, V., K. L. Buon, A. Derneryd, and Z. Ying, "Actual diversity performance of a multiband diversity antenna with hand and head effects," IEEE Trans. Antennas and Propagation, Vol. 57, No. 5, 1547-1556, 2009.

3. De Mingo, J., P. L. Carro, and P. Garcia-Ducar, "Antenna e®ects in DVB-H mobile rebroadcasters," IEEE Trans. Consumer Electronics, Vol. 55, No. 3, 1155-1161, 2009.

4. Glazunov, A. A., M. Gustafsson, A. F. Molisch, F. Tufvesson, and G. Kristensson, "Spherical vector wave expansion of gaussian electromagnetic ¯elds for antenna-channel interaction analysis," IEEE Trans. Antennas and Propagation, Vol. 57, No. 7, 2055-2067, 2009.

5. Taga, T., "Analysis for mean effective gain of mobile antennas in land mobile radio environments ," IEEE Trans. Vehicular Technology, Vol. 39, No. 2, 117-131, 1990.

6. Harrington, R. F., Time Harmonic Electromagnetic Fields, Wiley-IEEE press, New York, 1961.

7. Kalliola, K., et al., "Angular power distribution and mean effective gain of mobile antenna in different propagation environments ," IEEE Trans. Vehicular Technology, Vol. 51, No. 5, 823-838, 2002.

8. Knudsen, M. B. and G. F. Pedersen, "Spherical outdoor to indoor power spectrum model at the mobile terminal," IEEE Jnl. on Selected Areas in Communications, Vol. 20, No. 6, 1156-1169, 2002.

9. Perez, J. R. and J. Basterrechea, "Hybrid particle swarm-based algorithms and their application to linear array sinthesis," Progress In Electromagnetics Research, Vol. 90, 63-74, 2009.

10. Lanza, M., J. R. Perez, and J. Basterrechea, "Synthesis of planar arrays using a modifies particle swarm optimization algorithm by introducing a selection operator and elitism," Progress In Electromagnetics Research, Vol. 93, 145-160, 2009.

11. Hansen, J. E., Spherical Near-Field Antenna Measurements, Peter Peregrinus Ltd., 1988.

12. Koivisto, P. K. and J. C.-E. Sten, "On the influence of incomplete radiation pattern data on the accuracy of a spherical wave expansion," Progress In Electromagnetics Research, Vol. 52, 185-204, 2005.

13. Koivisto, P. K., "Reduction of errors in antenna radiation patterns using optimally truncated spherical wave expansion ," Progress In Electromagnetics Research, Vol. 47, 313-333, 2004.

14. Kennedy, J. and R. C. Eberhart, "Particle swarm optimization," Proc. IEEE Conf. Neural Networks IV, Piscataway, New York, 1995.

15. Pozar, D. M., "Polarization of maximum gain antennas," IEEE Trans. Antennas and Propagation, Vol. 55, No. 7, 2113-2115, 2007.

© Copyright 2014 EMW Publishing. All Rights Reserved