Progress In Electromagnetics Research
ISSN: 1070-4698, E-ISSN: 1559-8985
Home | Search | Notification | Authors | Submission | PIERS Home | EM Academy
Home > Vol. 124 > pp. 35-53


By S. Li, B. Ren, H.-J. Sun, W. Hu, and X. Lv

Full Article PDF (607 KB)

Millimeter-wave (MMW) imaging techniques have been used for the detection of concealed weapons and contraband carried on personnel at airports and other secure locations. The combination of frequency-modulated continuous-wave (FMCW) technology and MMW imaging techniques should lead to compact, light-weight, and low-cost systems which are especially suitable for security and detection application. However, the long signal duration time leads to the failure of the conventional stop-and-go approximation of the pulsed system. Therefore, the motion within the signal duration time needs to be taken into account. Analytical three-dimensional(3-D) backscattered signal model, without using the stop-and-go approximation, is developed in this paper. Then, a wavenumber domain algorithm, with motion compensation, is presented. In addition, conventional wavenumber domain methods use Stolt interpolation to obtain uniform wavenumber samples and compute the fast Fourier transform (FFT). This paper uses the 3-D nonuniform fast Fourier transform (NUFFT) instead of the Stolt interpolation and FFT. The NUFFT-based method is much faster than the Stolt interpolation-based method. Finally, point target simulations are performed to verify the algorithm.

S. Li, B. Ren, H.-J. Sun, W. Hu, and X. Lv, "Modified Wavenumber Domain Algorithm for Three-Dimensional Millimeter-Wave Imaging," Progress In Electromagnetics Research, Vol. 124, 35-53, 2012.

1. Sheen, D. M., D. L. McMakin, and T. E. Hall, "Three-dimensional millimeter-wave imaging for concealed weapon detection," IEEE Trans. on Microwave Theory and Techniques, Vol. 49, No. 9, 1581-1592, 2001.

2. Appleby, R. and R. N. Anderton, "Millimeter-wave and submillimeter-wave imaging for security and surveillance," Proceedings of the IEEE, Vol. 95, No. 8, 1683-1690, 2007.

3. Yeom, S., D. Lee, H. Lee, J. Son, and V. P. Gushin, "Distance estimation of concealed objects with stereoscopic passive millimeter-wave imaging," Progress In Electromagnetics Research, Vol. 115, 399-407, 2011.

4. Huang, Y., P. V. Brennan, D. Patrick, I. Weller, P. Roberts, and K. Hughes, "FMCW based MIMO imaging radar for maritime navigation," Progress In Electromagnetics Research, Vol. 115, 327-342, 2011.

5. Meta, A., P. Hoogeboom, and L. P. Ligthart, "Signal processing for FMCW SAR," IEEE Trans. on Geoscience and Remote Sensing, Vol. 45, No. 11, 3519-3532, 2007.

6. Wang, R., O. Lo®eld, H. Nies, S. Knedlik, M. Hagelen, and H. Essen, "Focus FMCW SAR data using the wavenumber domain algorithm," IEEE Trans. on Geoscience and Remote Sensing, Vol. 48, No. 4, 2109-2118, 2010.

7. Lee, M. S., "Signal modeling and analysis of a planar phased-array FMCW radar with antenna switching," IEEE Antennas and Wireless Propagation Letters, Vol. 10, 179-182, 2011.

8. De Wit, J. J. M., A. Meta, and P. Hoogeboom, "Modified range-doppler processing for FM-CW synthetic aperture radar," IEEE Geoscience and Remote Sensing Letters, Vol. 3, No. 1, 83-87, 2006.

9. Mittermayer, J., A. Moreira, and O. Loffeld, "Spotlight SAR data processing using the frequency scaling algorithm," IEEE Trans. on Geoscience and Remote Sensing, Vol. 37, No. 5, 2198-2214, 1999.

10. Jiang, Z. H., K. Huang-Fu, and J. W. Wan, "A chirp transform algorithm for processing squint mode FMCW SAR data," IEEE Geoscience and Remote Sensing Letters, Vol. 4, No. 3, 377-381, 2007.

11. Sheen, D. M., H. D. Collins, T. E. Hall, D. L. McMakin, R. P. Gribble, R. H. Severtsen, J. M. Prince, and L. D. Reid, "Real-time wideband holographic surveillance system,", U.S. Patent 5557283, Sep. 17, 1996.

12. Sheen, D. M., D. L. McMakin, H. D. Collins, T. E. Hall, and R. H. Severtsen, "Concealed explosive detection on personnel using a wideband holographic millimeter-wave imaging system," Proceedings of SPIE, Vol. 2755, 503-513, 1996.

13. Sheen, D., D. McMakin, and T. Hall, "Near-field three-dimensional radar imaging techniques and applications," Applied Optics, Vol. 49, E83-E93, 2010.

14. Tan, W., W. Hong, Y. Wang, and Y. Wu, "A novel spherical-wave three-dimensional imaging algorithm for microwave cylindrical scanning geometries," Progress In Electromagnetics Research, Vol. 111, 43-70, 2011.

15. Subiza, I., E. Gimeno-Nieves, J. M. Lopez-Sanchez, and J. Fortuny-Guasch, "An approach to SAR imaging by means of non-uniform FFTs," IEEE International Geoscience and Remote Sensing Symposium, Vol. 6, 4089-4091, 2003.

16. Song, J., Q. H. Liu, P. Torrione, and L. Collins, "Two-dimensional and three-fimensional NUFFT migration method forlandmine detection using ground-penetrating radar," IEEE Trans. on Geoscience and Remote Sensing, Vol. 44, No. 6, 1462-1469, 2006.

17. Dutt, A. and V. Rokhlin, "Fast Fourier transforms for nonequispaced data," SIAM Journal on Scientific Computing, Vol. 14, No. 6, 1368-1393, 1993.

18. Liu, Q. H. and N. Nguyen, "An accurate algorithm for nonuniform fast Fourier transforms (NUFFT)," IEEE Microwave and Guided Letters, Vol. 8, No. 1, 18-20, 1998.

19. Nguyen, N. and Q. H. Liu, "The regular Fourier matrices and nonuniform fast Fourier transforms," SIAM Journal on Scientific Computing, Vol. 21, No. 1, 283-293, 1999.

20. Liu, Q. H., X. M. Xu, B. Tian, and Z. Q. Zhang, "Applications of nonuniform fast transform algorithms in numerical solutions of di®erential and integral equations," IEEE Trans. on Geoscience and Remote Sensing, Vol. 38, No. 4, 1551-1560, 2000.

21. Fessler, J. A. and B. P. Sutton, "Nonuniform fast Fourier transforms using min-max interpolation," IEEE Trans. on Signal Processing, Vol. 51, No. 2, 560-574, 2003.

22. Greengard, L. and J. Y. Lee, "Accelerating the nonuniform fast Fourier transform," SIAM Review, Vol. 46, No. 3, 443-454, 2004.

23. Lee, J. Y. and L. Greengard, "The type 3 nonuniform FFT and its applications," Journal of Computational Physics, Vol. 206, No. 1, 1-5, 2005.

24. Fessler, J. A., "On NUFFT-based gridding for non-cartesian MRI," Journal of Magnetic Resonance, Vol. 188, 191-195, 2007.

25. Zhou, X., H. Sun, J. He, and X. Lu, "NUFFT-based iterative reconstruction algorithm for synthetic aperture imaging radiometers," IEEE Geoscience and Remote Sensing Letters, Vol. 6, No. 2, 273-276, 2009.

26. Li, S. Y., H. J. Sun, B. C. Zhu, and R. Liu, "Two-dimensional NUFFT-based algorithm for fast near-field imaging," IEEE Antennas and Wireless Propagation Letters, Vol. 9, 814-817, 2010.

27. Carrara, W. G., R. S. Goodman, and R. M. Majewski, Spotlight Synthetic Aperture Radar Signal Processing Algorithms, Artech House, Boston, MA, 1995.

28. Cumming, I. G. and F. H. Wong, Digital Processing of Synthetic Aperture Radar Data Algorithms and Implementation, Artech House, Norwood, MA, 2005.

29. Guo, D., H. Xu, and J. Li, "Extended wavenumber domain algorithm for highly squinted sliding spotlight SAR data processing," Progress In Electromagnetics Research, Vol. 114, 17-32, 2011.

© Copyright 2014 EMW Publishing. All Rights Reserved