PIER
 
Progress In Electromagnetics Research
ISSN: 1070-4698, E-ISSN: 1559-8985
Home | Search | Notification | Authors | Submission | PIERS Home | EM Academy
Home > Vol. 135 > pp. 55-80

VERTICAL ELECTRIC FIELDS AND FIELD CHANGE PARAMETERS DUE TO PARTLY INCLINED LIGHTNING LEADER CHANNELS

By C. Gomes, V. Cooray, and M. Z. A. Ab Kadir

Full Article PDF (513 KB)

Abstract:
Vertical electric fields generated by lightning leader channels, the total leader field change and the total leader field change to the total return stroke field change ratio, at a certain distance, were theoretically analysed by varying the angle of orientation of a segment of upper part. Ground was treated as a perfectly conducting horizontal plane. Results were able to discern significantly large differences in the static field due to leader channels which have the same total length but a certain channel segment is oriented at different angles. The outcome of our calculations consistently explains the scatter of the total leader field observed in previous studies. Without considering such channel segment orientation, one has to assume unrealistic charge source heights or unreasonable charge densities to calculate matching values for many observed total leader fields and leader field to return stroke filed ratios, labelled as anomalous observations in the literature. In some cases, irrespective of the charge source height and the charge density, one cannot find a suitable fit for the observed fields with the straight channel model.

Citation:
C. Gomes, V. Cooray, and M. Z. A. Ab Kadir, "Vertical Electric Fields and Field Change Parameters Due to Partly Inclined Lightning Leader Channels," Progress In Electromagnetics Research, Vol. 135, 55-80, 2013.
doi:10.2528/PIER12081809
http://www.jpier.org/PIER/pier.php?paper=12081809

References:
1. Hill, J. D., , M. A. Uman, D. M. Jordan, J. R. Dwyer, and H. Rassoul, "Chaotic dart leaders in triggered lightning: Electric ¯elds, X-rays, and source locations," Journal of Geophysical Research, Vol. 117, No. D03118, 20, 2012.

2. Shostak, , V., , T. Petrenko, W. Janischewskyj, and F. Rachidi, "Electric field within lightning protection volume in presence of a descending leader ," Electric Power Systems Research,, Vol. 85, 82-89, 2012.
doi:10.1016/j.epsr.2011.07.012

3. Howard, , J., , M. A. Uman, C. Biagi, D. Hill, V. A. Rakov, and D. M. Jordan, "Measured close lightning leader step electric field --- derivative waveforms," Journal of Geophysical Research, Vol. 116, No. D08201, 2011.
doi:doi:10.1029/2010JD015249

4. Cooray, , V., M. Becerra, and V. Rakov, , "On the electric field at the tip of dart leaders in lightning °ashes," Journal of Atmospheric and Solar-terrestrial Physics, 1397-1404, 2009.
doi:10.1016/j.jastp.2009.06.002

5. Jerauld, , J., M. A. Uman, V. A. Rakov, K. J. Rambo, D. M. Jordan, and G. H. Schnetzer, "Electric and magnetic fields and field derivatives from lightning stepped leaders and ¯rst return strokes measured at distances from 100 to 1000 m ," Journal of Geophysical Research,, Vol. 113, No. D17111, 2008.
doi:doi:10.1029/2008JD010171.

6. Moore, C. B., , K. B. Eack, G. D. Aulich, and W. Rison, "Energetic radiation associated with lightning stepped-leaders," Geophysical Research Letters, Vol. 28, No. 11, 2141-2144, 2001.
doi:10.1029/2001GL013140

7. Rakov, , V. A., M. A. Uman, D. M. Jordan, and C. A. Priore, "Ratio of return stroke electric field change for first and subsequent lightning strokes," Journal of Geophysical Research, Vol. 95, 16579-16587, 1990.
doi:10.1029/JD095iD10p16579

8. Rakov, , V. A. , M. A. Uman, and , "Waveforms of frst and subsequent leaders in negative lightning flashes," Journal of Geophysical Research,, Vol. 95, 16561-16577, 1990.
doi:10.1029/JD095iD10p16561

9. Beasley, , W. H., , M. A. Uman, and P. Rustan, "Electric fields preceding cloudtoground lightning flashes," Journal of Geophysical Research, , Vol. 87, 4883-4902, 1982.
doi:10.1029/JC087iC07p04883

10. Thomson, , E. M., "Characteristics of port morseby ground flashes," Journal of Geophysical Research,, Vol. 85, 1027-1036, 1980..
doi:10.1029/JC085iC02p01027

11. Krehbiel, , P. R., , M. Brook, and R. McCroy, , "An analysis of the charge structure of lightning discharges to ground," Journal of Geophysical Research,, Vol. 84, 2432-2456, 1979.
doi:10.1029/JC084iC05p02432

12. Kitagawa, N., M. Brook, and , "A comparison of intracloud and cloud to ground lightning discharge," Journal of Geophysical Research, Vol. 65, 1189-1201, 1960.
doi:10.1029/JZ065i004p01189

13. Ishikawa, H., "Nature of lightning discharges as origins of atmospherics," Proceedings of the Research Institute of Atmospherics, Vol. 8A, 1-273, 1961.

14. Thomson, , E. M., "Characteristics of port morseby ground flashes," Journal of Geophysical Research, Vol. 85, 1027-1036, 1980.
doi:10.1029/JC085iC02p01027

15. Shao, , X. M., "The development and structure of lightning discharges observed by VHF radio interferometry," Ph.D. Thesis, 1993.

16. Proctor, , D. E., "VHF radio pictures of cloud flashes," Journal of Geophysical Research, Vol. 86, 4041-4071, 1981.
doi:10.1029/JC086iC05p04041

17. Proctor, D. E., "Lightning and precipitation in a small multicellular thunder storm," Journal of Geophysical Research , Vol. 88, 5421, 1983.
doi:10.1029/JC088iC09p05421

18. Proctor, , D. E., "Regions where lightning flashes began," Journal of Geophysical Research, Vol. 96, 5099-5112, 1991.
doi:10.1029/90JD02120

19. Proctor, D. E., , R. Uytenbogaardt, and B. M. Meridith, "VHF radio pictures of lightning flashes to ground," Journal of Geophysical Research,, Vol. 93, 12683-12727, 1988.
doi:10.1029/JD093iD10p12683

20. Rhodes, C. T. , P. R. Krehbiel, and , "Interferometric observations of a single cloud-to-ground flash," Geophysical Research Letters, Vol. 16, 1169-1172, 1989.
doi:10.1029/GL016i010p01169

21. Rhodes, , C. T., , X. M. Shao, P. R. Krehbiel, R. J. Thomas, and C. O. Hayenga, "Observations of lightning phenomena using radio interferometry," Journal of Geophysical Research, Vol. 99, 13059-13082, 1994.
doi:10.1029/94JD00318

22. Shao, X. M., "The development and structure of lightning discharges observed by VHF radio interferometry ," Ph.D. Thesis,, 1993.

23. Shao, X. M. , P. R. Krehbiel, and , "The spatial and temporal development of intracloud lightning," Journal of Geophysical Research, Vol. 101, No. 26, 26641-26668, 1996.
doi:10.1029/96JD01803

24. Rustan, , P. L., , M. A. Uman, D. G. Childers, W. H. Beasley, and C. L. Lennon, "Lightning source location from VHF radiation data for a °ash at the Kennedy Space Centre ," Journal of Geophysical Research, Vol. 85, 4893-4903, 1980.
doi:10.1029/JC085iC09p04893

25. Krehbiel, , P. R., "An analysis of the electric field change produced by lightning," Ph.D. Thesis,, 1981.

26. Maier, , L. M. , E. P. Krider, and , "The charges that are deposited by cloud-to-ground lightning in Florida," Journal of Geophysical Research, Vol. 91, 13275-13289, 1986.
doi:10.1029/JD091iD12p13275

27. Marshall, , T. C., , W. Rison, W. D. Rust, M. Stolzunberg, J. C. Willett, and W. P. Winn, "Rocket and balloon observations of electric fields in two thunderstorms," Journal of Geophysical Research, Vol. 100, No. 20, 20815-20828, 1995.
doi:10.1029/95JD01877

28. Marshall, , T. C. and W. D. Rust, "Two types of vertical electric structures in stratiform precipitation regions of mesoscale convective systems," Bulletin of the American Meteorological Society, Vol. 74, 2159-2170, 1993.
doi:10.1175/1520-0477(1993)074<2159:TTOVES>2.0.CO;2

29. Winn, , W. P., C. B. Moore, and C. R. Holmes, "Electric field structure in active part of a small, isolated thundercloud," Journal of Geophysical Research, Vol. 86, 1187-1193, 1981.
doi:10.1029/JC086iC02p01187

30. Byrne, G. J., A. A. Few, and M. E. Weber, "Altitude, thickness and charge concentration of charged regions of four thunderstorms during TRIP 1981 based upon in situ balloon electric field measurements," Geophysical Research Letters, Vol. 10, 39-42, 1983.
doi:10.1029/GL010i001p00039

31. Hayenga, , C. O. , J. W. Warwick, and , "Two-dimensional interferometric positions of VHF lightning sources," Journal of Geophysical Research, Vol. 86, 7451-7462, 1981.
doi:10.1029/JC086iC08p07451

32. Fuquay, , D. M., "Positive cloud to ground lightning in summer thunderstorms ," thunderstorms, Vol. 87, 7131-7140, 1982.

33. The location of lightning flashes at ranges less than 100 km, Journal of Atmospheric and Terrestrial Physics, Vol. 35, 283-290, 1973.

34. Carte, , A. E. , R. E. Kidder, and , "Lightning in relation to precipitation ," Journal of Atmospheric and Terrestrial Physics, Vol. 39, 139-148, 1977.
doi:10.1016/0021-9169(77)90107-6

35. Larsson, , A. and V. Cooray, "Charge distribution in the lightning leader channel," Proc. 23rd Int. Conf. on Lightning Protection, 56-60, 1996.

36. Uman, , M. A., Lightning,, 48-59, 1969.

37. Appleton, E. V. and F. W. Chapman, "On the nature of Atmospherics, IV," Proceedings of the Royal Society of London, Series A, Vol. 158, 1-22, 1937.

38. Clarence, , N. D. and D. J. Malan, "Preliminary discharge processes in lightning flashes to ground," Q. J. Roy. Meteorol. Soc.,, Vol. 83, 161-172, 1957.
doi:10.1002/qj.49708335603

39. Schonland, , B. F. J., , D. B. Hodges, and H. Collens, "Progressive lightning-5, A comparison of photographic and electrical studies of the discharge process ," Proceedings of the Royal Society of London, Series A, Vol. 166, 56-75, 1938.

40. Barnard, V., "The approximate mean height of the thundercloud charges taking part in a flash to ground," Journal of Geophysical Research, Vol. 56, 33-35, 1951.
doi:10.1029/JZ056i001p00033

41. Jacobson, , E. A. , E. P. Krider, and , "Electrostatic field changes produced by Florida lightning," J. Atmos. Sci., Vol. 33, 103-117, 1976.
doi:10.1175/1520-0469(1976)033<0103:EFCPBF>2.0.CO;2

42. Thottappillil, , R., V. A. Rakov, and M. A. Uman, "Distribution of charge along the lightning channel: Relation to remote electric and magnetic fields and return stroke models," Journal of Geophysical Research, Vol. 102, 6987-7006, 1997.
doi:10.1029/96JD03344

43. Laroche, , P., , V. Idone, A. Eybert-Berard, and L. Barret, "Observations of bi-directional leader development in triggered light-ning flash," International Aerospace and Grounding Conference on Lightning and Static Electricity,, 1991.

44. Mazur, , V., "Triggered lightning strikes to aircraft and natural intracloud discharges," Journal of Geophysical Research,, Vol. 94, 3311-3325, 1989.
doi:10.1029/JD094iD03p03311

45. Mazur, V., "Physical model of lightning initiation on aircraft in thunderstorms," Journal of Geophysical Research,, Vol. 94, 3326-3340, 1989.
doi:10.1029/JD094iD03p03326

46. Mazur, , V. and L. H. Runhke, "Common physical processes in natural and artificially triggered lightning," Journal of Geophysical Research,, Vol. 98, 12913-12930, 1993.
doi:10.1029/93JD00626

47. Kasemir, , H. W., "A contribution to the electrostatic theory of a lightning discharge," Journal of Geophysical Research, Vol. 65, 1873-1878, 1960.
doi:10.1029/JZ065i007p01873

48. Kasemir, , H. W., "Static discharge and triggered lightning, international aerospace and grounding conference on lightning and static electricity ," DOT/FAA/CT-83/25, 24.1{24.11, 1983.

49. Izadi, , M., , M. Z. A. Ab Kadir, C. Gomes, V. Cooray, and J. Shoene, "Evaluation of lightning current and velocity profiles along lightning channel using measured magnetic flux density," Progress In Electromagnetic Research, Vol. 130, 473-492, 2012.

50. Izadi, , M., M. Z. A. Ab Kadir, C. Gomes, and V. Cooray, "Evaluation of lightning return stroke current using measured electromagnetic fields," Progress In Electromagnetic Research,, Vol. 130, 581-600, 2012.

51. Izadi, , M., , M. Z. A. Ab Kadir, C. Gomes, and V. Cooray, "Evaluation of lightning return stroke parameters using measured magnetic °ux density and PSO algorithm," Electrical Review Journal-Przeglad Elektrotechniczny,, Vol. 88, 201-204, 2012..

52. Javor, V., "Modeling of lightning strokes using two-peaked channel-base currents," International Journal of Antennas andPropagation, No. 318417, 2012.

53. Izadi, , M., , M. Z. Ab. Kadir, C. Gomes, and W. F. Wan Ahmad, "Numerical expressions in time domain for electromagnetic fields due to lightning channels," International Journal of Applied Electromagnetics and Mechanics, Vol. 37, 1-15, 2011.

54. Izadi, , M., , M. Z. A. A. Kadir, and C. Gomes, "Evaluation of electromagnetic fields associated with inclined lightning channel using second order FDTD-hybrid methods," Progress In Electromagnetic Research, Vol. 11, 209-236, 2011.

55. Gomes, , C. and M. Z. A. Ab. Kadir, "Protection of naval systems against electromagnetic effects due to lightning," Progress In Electromagnetic Research, Vol. 113, 333-349, 2011.


© Copyright 2014 EMW Publishing. All Rights Reserved