PIER
 
Progress In Electromagnetics Research
ISSN: 1070-4698, E-ISSN: 1559-8985
Home | Search | Notification | Authors | Submission | PIERS Home | EM Academy
Home > Vol. 134 > pp. 63-78

REDUCTION OF INTERNAL REFLECTIONS IN INTEGRATED LENS ANTENNAS FOR BEAM-STEERING

By A. Karttunen, J. Ala-Laurinaho, R. Sauleau, and A. V. Raisanen

Full Article PDF (587 KB)

Abstract:
The conventional integrated lens antennas (ILAs) for beam steering suffer from internal reflections that deteriorate the scanning properties. The internal reflections are known to affect side lobes, cross-polarisation level, input impedance of the feed, and mutual coupling. In this paper, ILAs are designed to exhibit very low reflection loss, i.e., to minimize the internal reflections. Wide ranges of realistic relative permittivities of the lens and of the feed element directivities are considered. It is shown that with any permittivity and with any feed directivity it is possible to design the lens shape in such a way that the reflection loss is low, for moderate beam-steering angles, without resorting to a complicated matching layer. The gain, directivity, beam-width, and the resulting distance between the feed elements are compared for all the designed lenses.

Citation:
A. Karttunen, J. Ala-Laurinaho, R. Sauleau, and A. V. Raisanen, "Reduction of Internal Reflections in Integrated Lens Antennas for Beam-Steering," Progress In Electromagnetics Research, Vol. 134, 63-78, 2013.
doi:10.2528/PIER12102206
http://www.jpier.org/PIER/pier.php?paper=12102206

References:
1. Rasshofer, R. R. and K. Naab, "77 GHz long range radar systems status, ongoing developments and future challenges ," Proc. 2nd Eur. Radar Conf., 161-164, Paris, France, 2005.

2. ETSI-Standard, ETSI EN 302 217-4-2 v1.4.1, "Fixed radio systems; Characteristics and requirements for point-to-point equipment and antennas; Part 4-2: Antennas," , 36, Aug. 2008.

3. Ala-Laurinaho, J., A. Karttunen, J. S?aily, A. Lamminen, R. Sauleau, and A. V. Raisanen, "Mm-wave lens antenna with an integrated LTCC feed array for beam steering," Proc. 4th Eur. Conf. Antennas Propag., C09P1-2/1841151, Barcelona, Spain, Apr. 12-16, 2010.

4. Karttunen, A., J. Saily, A. E. I. Lamminen, J. Ala-Laurinaho, R. Sauleau, and A. V. Raisanen, "Using optimized eccentricity rexolite lens for electrical beam steering with integrated aperture coupled patch array," Progress In Electromagnetics Research B, Vol. 44, 345-365, 2012.

5. Artemenko, A., A. Maltsev, R. Maslennikov, A. Sevastyanov, and V. Ssorin, "Beam steerable quartz integrated lens antenna for 60 GHz frequency band," Proc. 5th Eur. Conf. Antennas Propag., 788-792, Rome, Italy, Apr. 11-15, 2011.

6. Karttunen, A., J. Ala-Laurinaho, R. Sauleau, and A. V. Raisanen, "Reduction of internal reflections in low permittivity integrated lens antennas," Proc. Millimetre Wave Days, Espoo, Finland, May 23-25, 2011.
doi:10.1109/8.575618

7. Filipovic, D. F., G. P. Gauthier, S. Raman, and G. M. Rebeiz, "Off-axis properties of silicon and quartz dielectric lens antennas," IEEE Trans. Antennas Propag., Vol. 45, No. 5, 760-766, May 1997.

8. Karttunen, A., J. Ala-Laurinaho, R. Sauleau, and A. V. Raisanen, "2D beam-steering with non-symmetrical beam using non-symmetrical integrated lens antenna," Proc. 6th Eur. Conf. Antennas Propag., 2976-2980, Prague, Czech Republic, Mar. 25-30, 2012.

9. Van der Vorst, M. J. M., P. J. I. de Maagt, and M. H. A. J. Herben, "Scan-optimized integrated lens antennas," Proc. 27th European Microwave Conference, 605-610, Jerusalem, Israel, 1997.
doi:10.1109/22.788611

10. Van der Vorst, M. J. M., P. J. I. de Maagt, and M. H. A. J. Herben, "Effect of internal reflections on the radiation properties and input admittance of integrated lens antennas," IEEE Trans. Microwave Theory Tech., Vol. 47, No. 9, 1696-1704, Sept. 1999.
doi:10.1109/22.925500

11. Van der Vorst, M. J. M., P. J. I. de Maagt, A. Neto, A. L. Ryenolds, R. M. Heeres, W. Luinge, and M. H. A. J. Herben, "Effect of internal reflections on the radiation properties and input admittance of integrated lens antennas - comparison between measurements and theory," IEEE Trans. Microwave Theory Tech., Vol. 49, No. 6, 1118-1125, Jun. 2001.
doi:10.1109/22.910546

12. Wu, X., G. V. Eleftheriades, and T. E. van Deventer-Perkins, "Design and characterization of single- and multiple-beam mm-wave circularly polarized substrate lens antennas for wireless communications," IEEE Trans. Microwave Theory Tech., Vol. 49, No. 3, 431-441, Mar. 2001.
doi:10.1109/22.925500

13. Neto, A., A. Toccafondi, and S. Maci, "Mutual coupling between slots printed at the back of elliptical dielectric lenses," IEEE Trans. Microwave Theory Tech., Vol. 49, No. 6, 1118-1125, Jun. 2001.
doi:10.1109/JSSC.2011.2118110

14. Natarajan, A., S. K. Reynolds, M.-D. Tsai, S. T. Nicolson, J.-H. C. Zhan, D. G. Kam, D. Liu, Y.-L. O. Huang, A. Valdes-Garcia, and B. A. Floyd, "A fully-integrated 16-element phased-array receiver in SiGe BiCMOS for 60-GHz communications," IEEE J. Solid-State Circuits, Vol. 46, No. 5, 1059-1075, May 2011.
doi:10.1109/TAP.1973.1140406

15. Ludwig, A. C., "The definition of cross polarization," IEEE Trans. Antennas Propag., Vol. 21, No. 1, 116-119, Jan. 1973.
doi: --- Either ISSN or Journal title must be supplied.


© Copyright 2014 EMW Publishing. All Rights Reserved