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Progress In Electromagnetics Research  ISSN: 10704698, EISSN: 15598985 
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A NEW EFIE METHOD BASED ON COULOMB GAUGE FOR THE LOWFREQUENCY ELECTROMAGNETIC ANALYSISBy X. Y. Z. Xiong, L. J. Jiang, W. E. I. Sha, and Y.H. LoAbstract: To solve the lowfrequency breakdown inherent from the electric field integral equation (EFIE), an alternative new form of the EFIE is proposed by using the Coulombgauge Green's function of quasistatic approximation. Different from the commonly adopted Lorentzgauge EFIE, the Coulombgauge EFIE separates the solenoidal and irrotational surface currents explicitly, which captures inductive and capacitive responses through electrodynamic and electrostatic Green's functions, respectively. By applying existing techniques such as the looptree decomposition, frequency normalization, and basis rearrangement, the Coulombgauge EFIE also can remedy the lowfrequency breakdown problem. Through comparative studies between the Lorentzgauge and Coulombgauge EFIE approaches from mathematical, physical and numerical aspects, the Coulombgauge EFIE approach shows the capability of solving lowfrequency problems and achieves almost the same accuracy and computational costs compared to the Lorentzgauge counterpart.
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