In this paper, a complete model structure for propagation inside tunnels is presented by following the segmentation-based modeling thought. According to the concrete propagation mechanism, totally five zones and four dividing points are modeled to constitute three channel structures corresponding to large-size users and small-size users. Firstly, the propagation characteristics and mechanisms in all the zones are modeled. Then, from the view point of the propagation mechanism, the criterion of judging the type of a user is analytically derived. Afterwards, all the dividing points are analytically localized as well. Finally, a panorama covering all the propagation mechanisms, characteristics, models, and dividing pints for all types of users is presented for the first time. This panorama is very useful to gain a comprehensive understanding of the propagation inside tunnels. Validations show that by using the analytical equations in this paper, designers can easily realize a fast network planning for all types of users in various tunnels at different frequencies.
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