Vol. 155

Front:[PDF file] Back:[PDF file]
Latest Volume
All Volumes
All Issues

Graphene-Based Infrared Lens with Tunable Focal Length

By Yanxiu Li, Fanmin Kong, and Kang Li
Progress In Electromagnetics Research, Vol. 155, 19-26, 2016


In modern information and communication technologies, manipulating focal length has been hot topic. Considering that the conductivity of graphene layer can effectively be tuned by purposely designing the thickness of the dielectric spacer underneath the graphene layer, a graphene-based lens with tunable focal length is proposed in this paper, and it can be used to collimate waves. The fabrication of the proposed graphene-based lens is purposed, and the performance of the lens is verified with finite-element method. The simulation results demonstrate that the graphene-based lens has excellent tunability and confinement. At the same time, the lens exhibits low loss in certain rang and large frequency bandwidth.


Yanxiu Li, Fanmin Kong, and Kang Li, "Graphene-Based Infrared Lens with Tunable Focal Length," Progress In Electromagnetics Research, Vol. 155, 19-26, 2016.


    1. Bozhevolnyi, S. I., V. S. Volkov, E. Devaux, J.-Y. Laluet, and T. W. Ebbesen, "Channel plasmon subwavelength waveguide components including interferometers and ring resonators," Nature, Vol. 440, 508-511, 2006.

    2. Engheta, N., "Circuits with light at nanoscales: Optical nanocircuits inspired by metamaterial," Science, Vol. 317, 1698-1702, 2007.

    3. Ebbesen, T. W., C. Genet, and S. I. Bozhevolnyi, "Surface-plasmon circuitry," Physics Today, Vol. 61, 44, 2008.

    4. De Leon, I. and P. Berini, "Amplification of long-range surface plasmons by a dipolar gain medium," Nature Photonics, Vol. 4, 382-387, 2010.

    5. He, S., Y. He, and Y. Jin, "Revealing the truth about `trapped rainbow' storage of light in metamaterial," Scientific Reports, Vol. 2, 2012.

    6. Gan, Q., Y. J. Ding, and F. J. Bartoli, "Rainbow trapping and releasing at telecommunication wavelengths," Physical Review Letters, Vol. 102, 056801, 2009.

    7. Hu, H., D. Ji, X. Zeng, K. Liu, and Q. Gan, "Rainbow trapping in hyperbolic metamaterial waveguide," Scientific Reports, Vol. 3, 2013.

    8. Wang, G., H. Lu, and X. Liu, "Trapping of surface plasmon waves in graded grating waveguide system," Applied Physics Letters, Vol. 101, 013111, 2012.

    9. Politano, A. and G. Chiarello, "Quenching of plasmons modes in air-exposed graphene-Ru contacts for plasmonic devices," Applied Physics Letters, Vol. 102, 201608, 2013.

    10. Politano, A. and G. Chiarello, "Unravelling suitable graphene-metal contacts for graphene-based plasmonic devices," Nanoscale, Vol. 5, 8215-8220, 2013.

    11. Koppens, F. H., D. E. Chang, and F. J. Garcia de Abajo, "Graphene plasmonics: A platform for strong light–matter interactions," Nano Letters, Vol. 11, 3370-3377, 2011.

    12. Fang, Z., et al., "Gated tunability and hybridization of localized plasmons in nanostructured graphene," ACS Nano, Vol. 7, 2388-2395, 2013.

    13. Novoselov, K. S., et al., "Electric field effect in atomically thin carbon films," Science, Vol. 306, 666-669, 2004.

    14. Grigorenko, A., M. Polini, and K. Novoselov, "Graphene plasmonics," Nature Photonics, Vol. 6, 749-758, 2012.

    15. Bonaccorso, F., Z. Sun, T. Hasan, and A. Ferrari, "Graphene photonics and optoelectronics," Nature Photonics, Vol. 4, 611-622, 2010.

    16. Politano, A. and G. Chiarello, "Probing Young's modulus and Poisson's ratio in graphene/metal interfaces and graphite: A comparative study," Nano Research, 1-10, 2014.

    17. Matis, B. R., J. S. Burgess, F. A. Bulat, A. L. Friedman, B. H. Houston, and J. W. Baldwin, "Surface doping and band gap tunability in hydrogenated graphene," ACS Nano, Vol. 6, 17-22, 2012.

    18. Politano, A., D. Campi, V. Formoso, and G. Chiarello, "Evidence of confinement of the π plasmon in periodically rippled graphene on Ru(0001)," Physical Chemistry Chemical Physics, Vol. 15, 11356-11361, 2013.

    19. Politano., A. and G. Chiarello, "Plasmon modes in graphene: Status and prospect," Nanoscale, Vol. 6, 10927-10940, 2014.

    20. Rast, L., T. Sullivan, and V. Tewary, "Stratified graphene/noble metal systems for low-loss plasmonics applications," Physical Review B, Vol. 87, 045428, 2013.

    21. Liu, Y., T. Zentgraf, G. Bartal, and X. Zhang, "Transformational plasmon optics," Nano Letters, Vol. 10, 1991-1997, 2010.

    22. Zentgraf, T., Y. Liu, M. H. Mikkelsen, J. Valentine, and X. Zhang, "Plasmonic luneburg and eaton lenses," Nature Nanotechnology, Vol. 6, 151-155, 2011.

    23. Della Valle, G. and S. Longhi, "Graded index surface-plasmon-polariton devices for subwavelength light management," Physical Review B, Vol. 82, 153411, 2010.

    24. Hanson, G. W., "Dyadic Green's functions and guided surface waves for a surface conductivity model of graphene," Journal of Applied Physics, Vol. 103, 064302, 2008.

    25. Wang, W., S. P. Apell, and J. M. Kinaret, "Edge magnetoplasmons and the optical excitations in graphene disks," Physical Review B, Vol. 86, 125450, 2012.

    26. Fallahi, A. and J. Perruisseau-Carrier, "Design of tunable biperiodic graphene metasurfaces," Physical Review B, Vol. 86, 195408, 2012.

    27. Vakil, A. and N. Engheta, "Transformation optics using graphene," Science, Vol. 332, 1291-1294, 2011.

    28. Mikhailov, S. and K. Ziegler, "New electromagnetic mode in graphene," Physical Review Letters, Vol. 99, 016803, 2007.

    29. Zeng, C., X. Liu, and G. Wang, "Electrically tunable graphene plasmonic quasicrystal metasurfaces for transformation optics," Scientific Reports, Vol. 4, 2014.

    30. Gao, W., J. Shu, C. Qiu, and Q. Xu, "Excitation of plasmonic waves in graphene by guided-mode resonances," ACS Nano, Vol. 6, 7806-7813, 2012.

    31. Gutman, A., "Modified luneberg lens," Journal of Applied Physics, Vol. 25, 855-859, 1954.

    32. Xu, H. J., W. B. Lu, Y. Jiang, and Z. G. Dong, "Beam-scanning planar lens based on graphene," Applied Physics Letters, Vol. 100, 051903, 2012.

    33. Bolotin, K., K. Sikes, J. Hone, H. Stormer, and P. Kim, "Temperature-dependent transport in suspended graphene," Physical Review Letters, Vol. 101, 096802, 2008.

    34. Dorgan, V. E., A. Behnam, H. J. Conley, K. I. Bolotin, and E. Pop, "High-field electrical and thermal transport in suspended graphene," Nano Letters, Vol. 13, 4581-4586, 2013.