PIER
 
Progress In Electromagnetics Research
ISSN: 1070-4698, E-ISSN: 1559-8985
Home | Search | Notification | Authors | Submission | PIERS Home | EM Academy
Home > Vol. 165 > pp. 1-12

A RECONFIGURABLE CHAOTIC CAVITY WITH FLUORESCENT LAMPS FOR MICROWAVE COMPUTATIONAL IMAGING

By A. C. T. Yoya, B. Fuchs, C. Leconte, and M. Davy

Full Article PDF (590 KB)

Abstract:
Several computational imaging systems have recently been proposed at microwave and millimeter-wave frequencies enabling a fast and low cost reconstruction of the scattering strength of a scene. The quality of the reconstructed images is directly linked to the degrees of freedom of the system which are the number of uncorrelated radiated patterns that sequentially sample the scene. Frequency diverse antennas such as leaky chaotic cavities and metamaterial apertures take advantage of the spectral decorrelation of transmitted speckle patterns that stems from the reverberation within a medium. We present a reconfigurable chaotic cavity for which the boundary conditions can be tuned by exciting plasma elements, here commercial fluorescent lamps. The interaction of electromagnetic waves with a cold plasma is strongly modified as it is ionized. Instead of being transparent to incident waves, it behaves theoretically as a metallic material. The independent states of the cavity obtained using a differential approach further enhance the degrees of freedom. This relaxes the need of a cavity with a large bandwidth and/or high quality factor. Experimental results validate the use of fluorescent lamps, and its limitations are discussed. Images of various metallic objects are provided to illustrate the potentialities of this promising solution.

Citation:
A. C. T. Yoya, B. Fuchs, C. Leconte, and M. Davy, "A Reconfigurable Chaotic Cavity with Fluorescent Lamps for Microwave Computational Imaging," Progress In Electromagnetics Research, Vol. 165, 1-12, 2019.
doi:10.2528/PIER19011602
http://www.jpier.org/PIER/pier.php?paper=19011602

References:
1. Duarte, M. F., M. A. Davenport, D. Takhar, J. N. Laska, T. Sun, K. E. Kelly, and R. G. Baraniuk, "Single-pixel imaging via compressive sampling," IEEE Signal Process. Lett., Vol. 25, 83, 2008.
doi:10.1109/MSP.2007.914730

2. Chan, W. L., K. Charan, D. Takhar, K. F. Kelly, R. G. Baraniuk, and D. M. Mittleman, "A single-pixel terahertz imaging system based on compressed sensing," Appl. Phys. Lett., Vol. 93, 121105, 2008.
doi:10.1063/1.2989126

3. Katz, O., Y. Bromberg, and Y. Silberberg, "Compressive ghost imaging," Appl. Phys. Lett., Vol. 95, 131110, 2009.
doi:10.1063/1.3238296

4. Sun, B., M. P. Edgar, R. Bowman, L. E. Vittert, S. Welsh, A. Bowman, and M. Padgett, "3D computational imaging with single-pixel detectors," Science, Vol. 340, 844-847, 2013.
doi:10.1126/science.1234454

5. Hunt, J., T. Driscoll, A. Mrozack, G. Lipworth, M. Reynolds, D. Brady, and D. R. Smith, "Metamaterial apertures for computational imaging," Science, Vol. 339, 310-313, 2013.
doi:10.1126/science.1230054

6. Katz, O., P. Heidmann, M. Fink, and S. Gigan, "Non-invasive single-shot imaging through scattering layers and around corners via speckle correlations," Nat. Photonics, Vol. 8, 784-790, 2014.
doi:10.1038/nphoton.2014.189

7. Liutkus, A., D. Martina, S. Popoff, G. Chardon, O. Katz, G. Lerosey, S. Gigan, L. Daudet, and I. Carron, "Imaging with nature: Compressive imaging using a multiply scattering medium," Sci. Rep., Vol. 4, Article No. 5552, 2014.
doi:10.1038/srep05552

8. Watts, C. M., D. Shrekenhamer, J. Montoya, G. Lipworth, J. Hunt, T. Sleasman, S. Krishna, D. R. Smith, and W. J. Padilla, "Terahertz compressive imaging with metamaterial spatial light modulators," Nat. Photonics, Vol. 8, 605-609, 2014.
doi:10.1038/nphoton.2014.139

9. Sheen, D. M., D. L. McMakin, and T. E. Hall, "Three-dimensional millimeter-wave imaging for concealed weapon detection," IEEE Trans. Microw. Theory Tech., Vol. 49, 1581-1592, 2001.
doi:10.1109/22.942570

10. Chen, H.-M., S. Lee, R. M. Rao, M.-A. Slamani, and P. K. Varshney, "Imaging for concealed weapon detection: A tutorial overview of development in imaging sensors and processing," IEEE Signal Process. Mag., Vol. 22, 52-61, 2005.
doi:10.1109/MSP.2005.1406480

11. Baranoski, E. J., "Through-wall imaging: Historical perspective and future directions," J. Franklin Inst., Vol. 345, 556-569, 2008.
doi:10.1016/j.jfranklin.2008.01.005

12. Fear, E. C., X. Li, S. C. Hagness, and M. A. Stuchly, "Confocal microwave imaging for breast cancer detection: Localization of tumors in three dimensions," IEEE Trans. Biomed. Eng., Vol. 49, 812-822, 2002.
doi:10.1109/TBME.2002.800759

13. Nikolova, N. K., "Microwave imaging for breast cancer," IEEE Microw. Mag., Vol. 12, 78-94, 2011.
doi:10.1109/MMM.2011.942702

14. Li, J. and P. Stoica, MIMO Radar Signal Processing, Wiley Online Library, 2008.
doi:10.1002/9780470391488

15. Montaldo, G., D. Palacio, M. Tanter, and M. Fink, "Building three-dimensional images using a time-reversal chaotic cavity," IEEE Trans. Ultrason., Ferroelect., Freq. Control, Vol. 52, 1489-1497, 2005.
doi:10.1109/TUFFC.2005.1516021

16. Yurduseven, O., V. R. Gowda, J. N. Gollub, and D. R. Smith, "Printed aperiodic cavity for computational and microwave imaging," IEEE Microw. Wirel. Compon. Lett., Vol. 26, 367-369, 2016.
doi:10.1109/LMWC.2016.2548443

17. Sleasman, T., M. F. Imani, J. N. Gollub, and D. R. Smith, "Microwave imaging using a disordered cavity with a dynamically tunable impedance surface," Phys. Rev. Applied, Vol. 6, 054019, 2016.
doi:10.1103/PhysRevApplied.6.054019

18. Fromenteze, T., O. Yurduseven, M. F. Imani, J. Gollub, C. Decroze, D. Carsenat, and D. R. Smith, "Computational imaging using a mode-mixing cavity at microwave frequencies," Appl. Phys. Lett., Vol. 106, 194104, 2015.
doi:10.1063/1.4921081

19. Tondo Yoya, A. C., B. Fuchs, and M. Davy, "Computational passive imaging of thermal sources with a leaky chaotic cavity," Appl. Phys. Lett., Vol. 111, 193501, Nov. 6, 2017.
doi:10.1063/1.4996964

20. Zvolensky, T., J. N. Gollub, D. L. Marks, and D. R. Smith, "Design and analysis of a W-band metasurface-based computational imaging system," IEEE Access, 2017.

21. Gollub, J. N., O. Yurduseven, K. P. Trofatter, D. Arnitz, M. F. Imani, T. Sleasman, M. Boyarsky, A. Rose, A. Pedross-Engel, H. Odabasi, T. Zvolensky, G. Lipworth, D. Brady, D. L. Marks, M. S. Reynolds, and D. R. Smith, "Large metasurface aperture for millimeter wave computational imaging at the human-scale," Sci. Rep., Vol. 7, 42650, 2017.
doi:10.1038/srep42650

22. Fromenteze, T., X. Liu, M. Boyarsky, J. Gollub, and D. R. Smith, "Phaseless computational imaging with a radiating metasurface," Opt. Express, Vol. 24, 16760-16776, Jul. 25, 2016.
doi:10.1364/OE.24.016760

23. Sleasman, T., M. F. Imani, J. N. Gollub, and D. R. Smith, "Dynamic metamaterial aperture for microwave imaging," Appl. Phys. Lett., Vol. 107, 204104, Nov. 16, 2015.
doi:10.1063/1.4935941

24. Yurduseven, O., J. N. Gollub, D. L. Marks, and D. R. Smith, "Frequency-diverse microwave imaging using planar Mills-Cross cavity apertures," Opt. Express, Vol. 24, 8907-8925, Apr. 18, 2016.
doi:10.1364/OE.24.008907

25. Marks, D. L., J. Gollub, and D. R. Smith, "Spatially resolving antenna arrays using frequency diversity," JOSA A, Vol. 33, 899-912, 2016.
doi:10.1364/JOSAA.33.000899

26. Yurduseven, O., V. R. Gowda, J. N. Gollub, and D. R. Smith, "Multistatic microwave imaging with arrays of planar cavities," IET Microwaves, Antennas & Propagation, Vol. 10, 1174-1181, 2016.
doi:10.1049/iet-map.2015.0836

27. Stockmann, H. J., Quantum Chaos: An Introduction, Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, 1999.
doi:10.1017/CBO9780511524622

28. Kuhl, U., O. Legrand, and F. Mortessagne, "Microwave experiments using open chaotic cavities in the realm of the effective Hamiltonian formalism," Fortschritte der Physik, Vol. 61, 404-419, 2013.
doi:10.1002/prop.201200101

29. Gradoni, G., J.-H. Yeh, B. Xiao, T. M. Antonsen, S. M. Anlage, and E. Ott, "Predicting the statistics of wave transport through chaotic cavities by the random coupling model: A review and recent progress," Wave Motion, Vol. 51, 606-621, 2014.
doi:10.1016/j.wavemoti.2014.02.003

30. Dietz, B. and A. Richter, "Quantum and wave dynamical chaos in superconducting microwave billiards," Chaos, Vol. 25, 097601, 2015.
doi:10.1063/1.4915527

31. Gros, J. B., U. Kuhl, O. Legrand, and F. Mortessagne, "Lossy chaotic electromagnetic reverberation chambers: Universal statistical behavior of the vectorial field," Phys. Rev. E, Vol. 93, 032108, 2016.
doi:10.1103/PhysRevE.93.032108

32. Fromenteze, T., O. Yurduseven, M. Boyarsky, J. Gollub, D. L. Marks, and D. R. Smith, "Computational polarimetric microwave imaging," Opt. Express, Vol. 25, 27488-27505, 2017.
doi:10.1364/OE.25.027488

33. Draeger, C. and M. Fink, "One-channel time reversal of elastic waves in a chaotic 2D-silicon cavity," Phys. Rev. Lett., Vol. 79, 407-410, 1997.
doi:10.1103/PhysRevLett.79.407

34. Besnier, P. and B. Demoulin, Electromagnetic Reverberation Chambers, John Wiley & Sons, 2013.

35. Kaina, N., M. Dupre, M. Fink, and G. Lerosey, "Hybridized resonances to design tunable binary phase metasurface unit cells," Opt. Express, Vol. 22, 18881-18888, Aug. 11, 2014.
doi:10.1364/OE.22.018881

36. Kaina, N., M. Dupre, G. Lerosey, and M. Fink, "Shaping complex microwave fields in reverberating media with binary tunable metasurfaces," Sci. Rep., Vol. 4, 6693, 2014.
doi:10.1038/srep06693

37. Dupre, M., P. del Hougne, M. Fink, F. Lemoult, and G. Lerosey, "Wave-field shaping in cavities: Waves trapped in a box with controllable boundaries," Phys. Rev. Lett., Vol. 115, 017701, 2015.
doi:10.1103/PhysRevLett.115.017701

38. Lieberman, M. A. and A. J. Lichtenberg, Principles of Plasma Discharges and Materials Processing, John Wiley & Sons, 2005.
doi:10.1002/0471724254

39. Sokoloff, J., O. Pascal, T. Callegari, R. Pascaud, F. Pizarro, L. Liard, J. Lo, and A. Kallel, "Non-thermal plasma potentialities for microwave device reconfigurability," C. R. Phys., Vol. 15, 468-478, May 1, 2014.
doi:10.1016/j.crhy.2014.02.006

40. Borg, G. G., J. H. Harris, D. G. Miljak, and N. M. Martin, "Application of plasma columns to radiofrequency antennas," Appl. Phys. Lett., Vol. 74, 3272-3274, May 31, 1999.
doi:10.1063/1.123317

41. Osamu, S. and T. Kunihide, "Plasmas as metamaterials: A review," Plasma Sources Sci. Technol., Vol. 21, 013001, 2012.
doi:10.1088/0963-0252/21/1/013001

42. Lo, J., J. Sokoloff, T. Callegari, and J. P. Boeuf, "Reconfigurable electromagnetic band gap device using plasma as a localized tunable defect," Appl. Phys. Lett., Vol. 96, 251501, Jun. 21, 2010.
doi:10.1063/1.3454778

43. Alu, A., F. Bilotti, N. Engheta, and L. Vegni, "Subwavelength, compact, resonant patch antennas loaded with metamaterials," IEEE Trans. Ant. Prop., Vol. 55, 13-25, 2007.
doi:10.1109/TAP.2006.888401

44. Bahl, I. and K. Gupta, "A leaky-wave antenna using an artificial dielectric medium," IEEE Trans. Ant. Prop., Vol. 22, 119-122, 1974.
doi:10.1109/TAP.1974.1140715

45. Lovat, G., P. Burghignoli, F. Capolino, D. R. Jackson, and D. R. Wilton, "Analysis of directive radiation from a line source in a metamaterial slab with low permittivity," IEEE Trans. Ant. Prop., Vol. 54, 1017-1030, 2006.
doi:10.1109/TAP.2006.869925

46. Laquerbe, V., R. Pascaud, T. Callegari, L. Liard, and O. Pascal, "Frequency-agile microstrip resonator using DC plasma discharge," Electron. Lett., Vol. 53, 415-417, 2017.
doi:10.1049/el.2017.0261

47. Barro, O. A., O. Lafond, and H. Himdi, "Reconfigurable antennas radiations using plasma Faraday cage," 2015 International Conference on Electromagnetics in Advanced Applications (ICEAA), 545-548, 2015.
doi:10.1109/ICEAA.2015.7297175

48. Arnaut, L. R., "Statistics of the quality factor of a rectangular reverberation chamber," IEEE Trans. Elec. Comp., Vol. 45, 61-76, 2003.

49. Davy, M., Z. Shi, and A. Z. Genack, "Focusing through random media: Eigenchannel participation number and intensity correlation," Phys. Rev. B, Vol. 85, 035105, 2012.
doi:10.1103/PhysRevB.85.035105

50. Davy, M., Z. Shi, J. Wang, and A. Z. Genack, "Transmission statistics and focusing in single disordered samples," Opt. Express, Vol. 21, 10367-10375, 2013.
doi:10.1364/OE.21.010367

51. Hsu, C. W., S. F. Liew, A. Goetschy, H. Cao, and A. D. Stone, "Correlation-enhanced control of wave focusing in disordered media," Nat. Phys., Vol. 13, 497, 2017.
doi:10.1038/nphys4036

52. Del Hougne, P., M. F. Imani, M. Fink, D. R. Smith, and G. Lerosey, "Precise localization of multiple noncooperative objects in a disordered cavity by wave front shaping," Phys. Rev. Lett., Vol. 121, 063901, 2018.
doi:10.1103/PhysRevLett.121.063901

53. Rudin, L. I., S. Osher, and E. Fatemi, "Nonlinear total variation based noise removal algorithms," Physica D, Vol. 60, 259-268, 1992.
doi:10.1016/0167-2789(92)90242-F

54. Cooper, K. B. and G. Chattopadhyay, "Submillimeter-wave radar: Solid-state system design and applications," IEEE Microw. Mag., Vol. 15, 51-67, 2014.
doi:10.1109/MMM.2014.2356092

55. Yurduseven, O., M. F. Imani, H. Odabasi, J. Gollub, G. Lipworth, A. Rose, and D. R. Smith, "Resolution of the frequency diverse metamaterial aperture imager," Progress In Electromagnetics Research, Vol. 150, 97-107, 2015.
doi:10.2528/PIER14113002


© Copyright 2014 EMW Publishing. All Rights Reserved