This paper presents the design, development and experimental characterization of a monolithic phased array antenna integrated on a microwave laminate. A four-element linear antenna array is realized by cofabricating the corporate feed network, microstrip-CPW transitions, DC blocks, and mesoscale phase shifters on the same substrate. The phase shifters used here are electrostatically actuated and their operation is similar to that of the distributed MEMS transmission line phase shifters. Various components of the array are designed and are individually evaluated before fabricating together. The measured radiation pattern characteristics for this array shows a scan angle of 10° in the X-band. All fabrication processes employed here can be performed at a good printed circuit manufacturing facility. This simple approach of cofabricating various components can be readily extended for large phased arrays required in radar and space communication applications.
2. Ohmori, S., Y. Yamao, and N. Nakajima, "The future generations of mobile communications based on broad-band access technologies," IEEE Commun. Mag., Vol. 38, 134-142, 2000.
3. Ehmouda, J., Z. Briqech, and A. Amer, "Steered microstrip phased array antennas," World Academy of Science, Engineering and Technology, Vol. 49, 319-323, 2009.
4. Godara, L. C., "Applications of antenna arrays to mobile communications. Part I: Performance improvement, feasibility, and system consideration," Proc. IEEE, Vol. 85, No. 7, 1031-1060, 1997.
5. Mailloux, R. J., Phased Array Antenna Handbook, 2nd Ed., Artech House, Boston, 2005.
6. Hansen, R. C., Phased Array Antennas, John Wiley & Sons, Inc., New York, 2009.
7. Skolnik, M. I., Radar Handbook, 3rd Ed., McGraw Hill, New York, 2008.
8. Schaer, B., K. Rambabu, J. Bornemann, and R. Vahldieck, "Design of reactive parasitic elements in electronic beam steering arrays ," IEEE Transactions on Antennas and Propagation, Vol. 53, No. 6, 1998-2003, 2005.
9. Koul, S. K. and B. Bhat, Semiconductor and Delay Line Phase Shifters, Artech House, 1992.
10. Varadan, V. K., K. J. Vinoy, and K. A. Jose, RF MEMS and Their Applications, John Wiley & Sons, Inc., London, 2002.
11. Topalli, K., O. A. Civi, S. Demir, S. Koc, and T. Akin, "A monolithic phased array using 3-bit distributed RF MEMS phase shifters ," IEEE Transactions on Microwave Theory and Techniques, Vol. 56, No. 2, 270-277, 2008.
12. Ji, T., H. Yoon, J. K. Abraham, and V. K. Varadan, "Ku-band antenna array feed distribution network with ferroelectric phase shifters on silicon," IEEE Transactions on Microwave Theory and Techniques, Vol. 54, No. 3, 1131-1138, 2006.
13. Kingsley, N., G. E. Ponchak, and J. Papapolymerou, "Reconfigurable RF MEMS phased array antenna integrated within a liquid crystal polymer (LCP) system-on-package," IEEE Transactions on Antennas and Propagation, Vol. 56, 108-118, 2008.
14. Gautier, W., V. Ziegler, A. Stehle, B. Schoenlinner, U. Prechtel, and W. Menzel, "RF-MEMS phased array antenna on low-loss LTCC substrate for Ka-band data link ," IEEE European Microwave Conference, 914-917, 2009.
15. Sundaram, A., M. Maddela, R. Ramadoss, and L. M. Feldner, "MEMS-based electronically steerable antenna array fabricated using PCB technology ," Journal of Micro-electromechanical Systems, Vol. 17, No. 2, 356-362, 2008.
16. Goel, P. and K. J. Vinoy, "An electrostatically actuated phase shifter on printed circuit board for a low cost phased array antenna," National Conference on MEMS, Smart Structures and Materials, 2009.
17. Lo, Y. T. and S. W. Lee, Antenna Handbook, Vol. 3, Springer, 1993.
18. Balanis, C. A., Antenna Theory Analysis and Design, 2nd Ed., John Wiley & Sons, Inc., New York, 1997.
19. Pozar, D. M., "Microwave Engineering," John Wiley & Sons, Inc., 2005.
20. Simon, R. N., "Coplanar Waveguide Circuits, Components and Systems," John Wiley & Sons, Inc., 2001.
21. Strauss, G., P. Ehret, and W. Menzel, "On-wafer measurements of microstrip-based MMICs without via holes," IEEE MTT-S International Symposium, Vol. 3, 1399-1402, 1996.
22. Robertson, R., E. M. Tentzeris, T. J. Ellis, and L. P. B. Katehi, "Characterization of a CPW-MS transition for antenna applications," IEEE Antennas and Propagation Society International Symposium , Vol. 3, 1380-1383, 1998.