Progress In Electromagnetics Research B
ISSN: 1937-6472
Home | Search | Notification | Authors | Submission | PIERS Home | EM Academy
Home > Vol. 40 > pp. 55-77


By N. Boriraksantikul, K. D. Bhattacharyya, P. J. D. Whiteside, C. O'Brien, P. Kirawanich, J. A. Viator, and N. E. Islam

Full Article PDF (825 KB)

The effect of 850 MHz electromagnetic radiation on diabetic blood at 2 W and 60 W power levels was investigated and compared with normal blood cells. The power levels respectively represent radiations from a cell phone and the cell phone tower, both operating 850 MHz. A GTEM cell was designed for the tests to generate the desired uniform electromagnetic field and power in a shielded environment. Blood samples, having normal and high glucose concentrations, were placed in the usable area inside the GTEM cell for 10, 30, 60 minutes and the glucose levels and red and white blood cell viabilities were monitored and compared with the controls. Results show that the 850 MHz exposure significantly influences the blood cell counts and the glucose level in both normal and high glucose blood samples. In cell survivability analysis in normal blood samples it was found that the white blood cells are significantly higher than the control at 60 min exposure from cell phone radiation, while both the white and red blood cell are significantly higher following a 30 min exposure from tower radiation. For high glucose blood tests at 30 and 60 min exposure times, the tower radiation for 60 min and the cell phone radiation at both the exposure times show significantly changes in white blood cell counts, whereas there was no effect in red blood cells. Also, for 30 and 60 min exposure times, the glucose level in normal blood samples increased from cell phone radiation and decreased due to tower radiation. Finally, in high glucose blood samples, the glucose level decreased significantly for a 30 minute tower exposure, while the glucose level increased significantly for the cell phones exposure duration of 60 min and for tower exposure duration of 10 min. Electromagnetic radiation effects on cells can be better analyzed through a combination of the frequency, power and test duration as a single factor as opposed to the effects of frequency alone.

N. Boriraksantikul, K. D. Bhattacharyya, P. J. D. Whiteside, C. O'Brien, P. Kirawanich, J. A. Viator, and N. E. Islam, "Case Study of High Blood Glucose Concentration Effects of 850 MHz Electromagnetic Fields Using Gtem Cell," Progress In Electromagnetics Research B, Vol. 40, 55-77, 2012.

1. Yakymenko, I. and E. Sidorik, "Risk of carcinogenesis from electromagnetic radiation of mobile telephony devices," Experimental Oncology, Vol. 32, No. 2, 54-60, Jul. 2010.

2. WHO/International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC), IARC classifies radiofrequency electromagnetic fields as possibly carcinogenic to humans, May 31, 2011. Available from: http://www.iarc.fr/en/media-centre/pr/2011/pdfs/pr208 E.pdf.

3. Sleper, D., M. S. Pathan, B. Camp-Raga, S. Tantong, P. Kirawanich, J. E. Thompson, and N. E. Islam, Optimization of soybeans as a biofuel resource through germination studies under electromagnetic fields, Proceeding, 18th Int. Zurich Symposium on EMC, 297-300, Munich, 2007.

4. Hunt, R. W., A. Zavalin, A. Bhatnagar, S. Chinnasamy, and K. C. Das, "Electromagnetic biostimulation of living cultures for biotechnology, biofuel and bioenergy applications," International Journal of Molecular Sciences, Vol. 10, No. 10, 4515-4558, 2009.

5. Pakhomov, A. G., Y. Akyel, O. N. Pakhomova, B. E. Stuck, and M. R. Murphy, "Current state and implications of research on biological effects of millimeter waves: A review of the literature," Bioelectromagnetic, Vol. 19, No. 7, 393-413, 1998.

6. Ratushnyak, A. A., M. G. Andreeva, O. V. Morozova, G. A. Morozov, and M. V. Trushin, "Effect of extremely high frequency electromagnetic fields on the microbiological community in rhizosphere of plants," International Agrophysics, Vol. 22, No. 1, 71-74, 2008.

7. Nair, I. and G. Morgan, "Electromagnetic fields: The Jury's still out. 1. Biological effects," IEEE Spectrum Mag., Vol. 27, No. 8, 23-27, Aug. 1990.

8. Lin, J. C., "Specific absorption rates (SARs) induced in head tissue by microwave radiation from cell phones," IEEE Ant. Propagat. Mag., Vol. 42, No. 5, 138-139, Oct. 2000.

9. Sarimov, R., L. O. G. Malmgren, E. Markova, B. R. R. Persson, and I. Y. Belyaev, "Non-thermal GSM microwaves affect chromatin conformation in human lymphocytes similar to heat shock," IEEE Plas. Sci., Vol. 32, No. 4, 1600-1607, Aug. 2004.

10. Stavroulakis, P., Biological Effects of Electromagnetic Fields, Springer, Berlin, NY, 2003.

11. Cifra, M., J. Pokorny, F. Jelinek, and O. Kucera, "Vibrations of electrically polar structures in biosystems give rise to electromagnetic field: Theories and experiment ," PIERS Proceeding, 138-142, Moscow, Russia, 2009.

12. Zhao, J. X., H. Lu, and J. Deng, "Dosimetry and temperature evaluations of a 1800MHz TEM cell for in vitro exposure with standing waves," Progress In Electromagnetics Research, Vol. 124, 487-510, 2012.

13. Mayrovitz, H. N. and P. B. Larsen, "A preliminary study to evaluate the effect of pulsed radio frequency field treatment on lower extremity Peri-Ulcer skin microcirculation of diabetic patients ," Wounds: A Compendium of Clinical Research and Practice, Vol. 7, No. 3, 90-93, 1995.

14. Abdalla, S., S. S. Al-ameer, and S. H. Al-Magaishi, "Electrical properties with relaxation through human blood," Biomicrofluidics, Vol. 4, No. 034101, 2010.

15. Kahlenberg, A., D. Dolansky, and R. Rohrlick, "D-glucose uptake by isolated human erythrocyte membranes versus D-glucose transport by human erythrocytes. Comparison of the effects of proteolytic and phospholipase A 2 digestion ," The Journal of Biological Chemistry, Vol. 247, No. 14, 4572-4576, Jul. 1972.

16. Levine, K. B., T. K. Robichaud, S. Hamill, L. A. Sultzman, and A. Carruthers, "Properties of the human erythrocyte glucose transport protein are determined by cellular context," Biochemistry, Vol. 44, No. 15, 5606-5616, Apr. 2005.

17. Buhler, I., R. Walter, and W. H. Reinhart, "Influence of D- and L-glucose on erythrocytes and blood viscosity," European Journal of Clinical Investigation, Vol. 31, No. 1, 79-85, Jan. 2001.

18. Malaisse, W. J., M. E. Pueyo, F. Malaisse-Lagae, P. Froguel, and G. Velho, "D-glucose metabolism in lymphocytes of patients with mitochondrial point mutation of the tRNALeu (UUR) gene," Biochemical and Molecular Medicine, Vol. 54, No. 2, 91-95, Apr. 1995.

19. Otton, R., J. R. Mendonca, and R. Curi, "Diabetes causes marked changes in lymphocyte metabolism," The Journal of Endocrinology, Vol. 174, No. 1, 55-61, Jul. 2002.

20. N. J., S. R. Jacobs, H. L. Wieman, J. A. Wofford, J. L. Coloff, J. C. Rathmell, "Glucose metabolism in lymphocytes is a regulated process with significant effects on immune cell function and survival," Journal of Leukocyte Biology, Vol. 84, No. 4, 949-957, Oct. 2008.

21. Piatkiewicz, P., A. Czech, and J. Taton, "Glucose transport in human peripheral blood lymphocytes influenced by type 2 diabetes mellitus ," Archivum Immunologiae et Therapiae Experimentalis, Vol. 55, No. 2, 119-126, 2007.

22. Nadejde, C., D. E. Creanga, and C. Goiceanu, "Radiofrequency electromagnetic wave and paramagnetic particle effects on the red blood cells ," Romanian Journal of Physics, Vol. 54, No. 1-2, 105-114, 2009.

23. Aziz, I. A., H. J. El-Khozondar, M. Shabat, K. Elwasife, and A. Mohamed-Osman, "Effect of electromagnetic field on body weight and blood indices in albino rats and the therapeutic action of vitamin C or E," Romanian Journal of Biophysics, Vol. 20, No. 3, 235-244, 2010.

24. Havas, M., "Dirty electricity elevates blood sugar among electrically sensitive diabetics and may explain brittle diabetes," Electromagnetic Biology and Medicine, Vol. 27, 135-146, 2008.

25. Havas, M., "Electromagnetic hypersensitivity: Biological effects of dirty electricity with emphasis on diabetes and multiple sclerosis," Electromagnetic Biology and Medicine, Vol. 25, 259-268, 2006.

26. Havas, M. and D. Stetzer, "Dirty electricity and electrical hypersensitivity: Five case studies," World Health Organization Workshop on Electrical Hypersensitivity, 1-13, 2004.

27. Chen, Y.-B., J. Tan, X. Miao, J. Li, and G.-Z. Guo, "Electromagnetic pulse's effects on insulin's bioactivity and mechanism study," 5th Asia-Pacific Conference on Environmental Electromagnetics, 217-220, 2009.

28. Jolley, W. B., D. B. Hinshaw, and K. Knierim, "Magnetic field effects on calcium efflux and insulin secretion in isolated rabbit islets of Langerhans ," Bioelectromagnetic, Vol. 4, No. 1, 103-106, 1983.

29. Abdalla, S., "Effect of erythrocytes oscillations on dielectric properties of human diabetic-blood," AIP Advances, Vol. 1, No. 012104, American Institute of Physics, 2011.

30. Tura, A., S. Sbrignadello, S. Barison, S. Conti, and G. Pacini, "Dielectric properties of water and blood samples with glucose at different concentrations," IFMBE Proceedings, Vol. 16, 194-197, 2007.

31. Budi, A., F. S. Legge, H. Treutlein, and I. Yarovsky, "Effect of frequency on insulin response to electric field stress," The Journal of Physical Chemistry B, Vol. 111, No. 20, 5748-5756, 2007.

32. Budi, A., F. S. Legge, H. Treutlein, and I. Yarovsky, "Effect field effects on insulin chain-B conformation," The Journal of Physical Chemistry B, Vol. 109, No. 47, 22641-22648, 2005.

33. Budi, A., F. S. Legge, H. Treutlein, and I. Yarovsky, "Comparative study of insulin chain-B in isolated and monomeric environments under external stress," The Journal of Physical Chemistry B, Vol. 112, No. 26, 7916-7924, 2008.

34. AT&T Inc., 2011. What you need to know about your network [Online]. Available: http://www.att.com/gen/press-room?pid = 14003.

35. Koenigstein, D. and D. Hansen, "A new family of TEM-cells with enlarged bandwidth and optimized working volume," Proc. 7th Int. Zurich Symp. and Technical Exhibition EMC, 127-132, Zurich, Switzerland, Mar. 1987.

36. Malaric, K., EMI Protection for Communication Systems, Artech House, Boston, c2010.

37. Boriraksantikul, N., P. Kirawanich, and N. E. Islam, "Near-field radiation from commercial cellular phones using a TEM cell," Progress In Electromagnetics Research B, Vol. 11, 15-28, 2009.

38. Morgan, D., A Handbook for EMC Testing and Measurement, Peter Peregrinus Ltd., London, UK, 1994.

39. Garner, A. L., G. Chen, N. Chen, V. Sridhara, J. F. Kolb, R. J. Swanson, S. J. Beebe, R. P. Joshi, and K. H. Schoenbach, "Ultrashort electric pulse induced changes in cellular dielectric properties ," Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications, Vol. 362, 139-144, 2007.

40. Treeby, B. E., E. Z. Zhang, A. S. Thomas, and B. T. Cox, "Measurement of the ultrasound attenuation and dispersion in whole human blood and its components form 0-70 MHz," Ultrasound in Medicine & Biology, Vol. 37, No. 2, 289-300, 2011.

41. CST MICROWAVE STUDIO Educational Version, CST Computer Simulation Technology, 2011.

© Copyright 2010 EMW Publishing. All Rights Reserved