Progress In Electromagnetics Research C
ISSN: 1937-8718
Home | Search | Notification | Authors | Submission | PIERS Home | EM Academy
Home > Vol. 92 > pp. 137-150


By H. Tian, L. J. Jiang, and T. Itoh

Full Article PDF (625 KB)

In this paper, we propose a convenient fixed-frequency beam steering method, using a single patch antenna controlled by only one electronically tunable component. The antenna is based on coupled-mode patch antenna (CMPA) [1] that is capable to scan the beam as the function of frequency. A ground-etched slot loaded with one varactor diode is tuned to be capacitive, resonant, or inductive. In order to test broader tuning range, two kinds of varactors with the ranges of 9.24 pF-1.77 pF and 2.67 pF-0.63 pF are implemented respectively. By analyzing how the loaded slot affects the cavity modes and fields, we demonstrate how the voltage bias tunes the frequency responses and steers beam of the antenna. Perturbed by the loaded slot, the frequency response of the antenna shifts from center frequency of 2.35 GHz with the bandwidth of 4.26% down to the band centered at 2.3 GHz with the bandwidth of 4.35%. The maximum scanning range is realized at around 2.29 GHz where the measured main beam continuously scans from -34° to +32° when the varactor with lower tuning range is used and biased. Meanwhile, the main beam of 2.35 GHz scans from +32° to +54° when the higher-range varactor is biased. The proposed single-element antenna is able to maintain high gain and efficiency that are comparable to a regular patch antenna with same size and substrate.

H. Tian, L. J. Jiang, and T. Itoh, "A Compact Single-Element Pattern Reconfigurable Antenna with Wide-Angle Scanning Tuned by a Single Varactor," Progress In Electromagnetics Research C, Vol. 92, 137-150, 2019.

1. Tian, H., K. Dhwaj, L. J. Jiang, and T. Itoh, "Beam scanning realized by coupled modes in a single-patch antenna," IEEE Antennas and Wireless Propagation Letters, Vol. 17, No. 6, 1077-1080, 2018.

2. Alexiou, A. and M. Haardt, "Smart antenna technologies for future wireless systems: Trends and challenges," IEEE Communications Magazine, Vol. 42, No. 9, 90-97, 2004.

3. Nemati, M. H., R. Kazemi, and I. Tekin, "Pattern reconfigurable patch array for 2.4GHz WLAN systems," Microwave and Optical Technology Letters, Vol. 56, No. 10, 2377-2381, 2014.

4. Xiao, S., C. Zheng, M. Li, J. Xiong, and B. Z. Wang, "Varactor-loaded pattern reconfigurable array for wide-angle scanning with low gain fluctuation," IEEE Transactions on Antennas and Propagation, Vol. 63, No. 5, 2364-2369, 2015.

5. Daly, M. P. and J. T. Bernhard, "Beamsteering in pattern reconfigurable arrays using directional modulation," IEEE Transactions on Antennas and Propagation, Vol. 58, No. 7, 2259-2265, 2010.

6. Ding, X., Y. F. Cheng, W. Shao, H. Li, B. Z. Wang, and D. E. Anagnostou, "A wide-angle scanning planar phased array with pattern reconfigurable magnetic current element," IEEE Transactions on Antennas and Propagation, Vol. 65, No. 3, 1434-1439, 2017.

7. Caloz, C., T. Itoh, and A. Rennings, "CRLH metamaterial leaky-wave and resonant antennas," IEEE Antennas and Propagation Magazine, Vol. 50, No. 5, 25-39, 2008.

8. Li, Y., Q. Xue, E. K. N. Yung, and Y. Long, "Dual-beam steering microstrip leaky wave antenna with fixed operating frequency," IEEE Transactions on Antennas and Propagation, Vol. 56, No. 1, 248-252, 2008.

9. Suntives, A. and S. V. Hum, "A fixed-frequency beam-steerable half-mode substrate integrated waveguide leaky-wave antenna," IEEE Transactions on Antennas and Propagation, Vol. 60, No. 5, 2540-2544, 2012.

10. Christodoulou, C. G., Y. Tawk, S. A. Lane, and S. R. Erwin, "Reconfigurable antennas for wireless and space applications," Proceedings of the IEEE, Vol. 100, No. 7, 2250-2261, 2012.

11. Bai, Y. Y., S. Xiao, C. Liu, X. Shuai, and B. Z. Wang, "Design of pattern reconfigurable antennas based on a two element dipole array model," IEEE Transactions on Antennas and Propagation, Vol. 61, No. 9, 4867-4871, 2013.

12. Jusoh, M., T. Aboufoul, T. Sabapathy, A. Alomainy, and M. R. Kamarudin, "Patternreconfigurable microstrip patch antenna with multidirectional beam for WiMAX application," IEEE Antennas and Wireless Propagation Letters, Vol. 13, 860-863, 2014.

13. Pal, A., A. Mehta, D. Mirshekar-Syahkal, and H. Nakano, "A twelve- beam steering low profile patch antenna with shorting vias for vehicular applications," IEEE Transactions on Antennas and Propagation, Vol. 65, No. 8, 3905-3912, 2017.

14. Zainarry, S. N. M., S. J. Chen, and C. Fumeaux, "A pattern-reconfigurable single-element microstrip antenna," 2018 IEEE Radio and Antenna Days of the Indian Ocean (RADIO), 1-2, 2018.

15. Balanis, C. A., Antenna Theory: Analysis and Design, John Wiley & Sons, 2016.

16. Hoefer, W. J., "Equivalent series inductivity of a narrow transverse slit in microstrip," IEEE Transactions on Microwave Theory and Techniques, Vol. 25, No. 10, 822-824, 1977.

17. Dhwaj, K., J. M. Kovitz, R. Al-Hadi, and T. Itoh, "Compact dual-band filtering antenna based on capacitor loaded patch radiator," 2017 IEEE Asia Pacific, Microwave Conference (APMC), 1188-1191, 2017.

18. Hong, J. S. G. and M. J. Lancaster, Microstrip Filters for RF/Microwave Applications, John Wiley & Sons, 2004.

19. Majumdar, B. and K. P. Esselle, "A single band beam scanning active phased array antenna," IEEE Electromagnetics in Advanced Applications (ICEAA), 2016 International Conference, 832-835, 2016.

20. Zainarry, S. N. M., N. Nguyen-Trong, and C. Fumeaux, "A frequency- and pattern-reconfigurable two-element array antenna," IEEE Antennas and Wireless Propagation Letters, Vol. 17, No. 4, 617-620, 2018.

21. Alam, M. S. and A. M. Abbosh, "Beam-steerable planar antenna using circular disc and four pin-controlled tapered stubs for WiMAX and WLAN applications," IEEE Antennas and Wireless Propagation Letters, Vol. 15, 980-983, 2016.

© Copyright 2010 EMW Publishing. All Rights Reserved