PIER M
 
Progress In Electromagnetics Research M
ISSN: 1937-8726
Home | Search | Notification | Authors | Submission | PIERS Home | EM Academy
Home > Vol. 40 > pp. 57-67

INTRA-BODY PROPAGATION CHANNEL INVESTIGATION USING ELECTRICALLY COUPLED LOOP ANTENNA

By A. A. Y. Ibraheem and M. Manteghi

Full Article PDF (745 KB)

Abstract:
Knowledge of propagation media, typically gathered through physical experiments and simulations, is absolutely critical in successful transceiver design. In the case of medical implants, physical experiments are extremely difficult. Therefore, we rely on simulations in most studies. In this paper, Path Loss (PL) between implanted antennas, as a measure of propagation channel characteristics, is investigated using High Frequency Structure Simulator (HFSS) and Remcom's XFDTD 7 (XF7). An Electrically Coupled Loop Antenna (ECLA) is designed to study PL inside human body models at different frequency bands: Medical Implanted Communication Services (MICS) band (402-405 MHz), Industrial Scientific and Medical (ISM) band (2.4 2.5 GHz) and 3.5 GHz band (3.55-3.65 GHz). The ECLA has dimensions (5×5×3 mm3), (3×3×3 mm3) and (2×2×2 mm3) at MICS, ISM and 3.5 GHz respectively. ECLA performance inside human body models is studied at the allowed frequency bands. The effects of frequency bands, human model electrical properties, and distance between implants on PL are considered. Simulation results are validated with experimental work. Our results show that the ECLA at MICS band has the lowest Specific Absorption Rate (SAR) and the highest allowed input power. Also, the MICS band has the lowest PL inside the human body model, shown to be less than 90 dB in the worst case scenario.

Citation:
A. A. Y. Ibraheem and M. Manteghi, "Intra-Body Propagation Channel Investigation Using Electrically Coupled Loop Antenna," Progress In Electromagnetics Research M, Vol. 40, 57-67, 2014.
doi:10.2528/PIERM14102110

References:
1. Von Arx, J. A. and K. Najafi, "A wireless single-chip telemetry-powered neural stimulation system," 1999 IEEE International Solid-State Circuits Conference, Digest of Technical Papers, ISSCC, 214-215, 1999.

2. Khaleghi, A. and I. Balasingham, "On the ultra wideband propagation channel characterizations of the biomedical implants," IEEE 69th Vehicular Technology Conference, VTC Spring 2009, 1-4, 2009.
doi:10.1109/VETECS.2009.5073740

3. Gupta, S. K. S., S. Lalwani, Y. Prakash, E. Elsharawy, and L. Schwiebert, "Towards a propagation model for wireless biomedical applications," IEEE International Conference on Communications, ICC’ 03, Vol. 3, 1993-1997, 2003.
doi:10.1109/ICC.2003.1203948

4. Khaleghi, A., R. Chavez-Santiago, and I. Balasingham, "Ultra-wideband statistical propagation channel model for implant sensors in the human chest," IET Microwaves, Antennas & Propagation, Vol. 5, 1805-1812, 2011.
doi:10.1049/iet-map.2010.0537

5. Wang, Q., K. Masami, and J. Wang, "Channel modeling and BER performance for wearable and implant UWB body area links on chest," IEEE International Conference on Ultra-Wideband, ICUWB 2009, 316-320, 2009.
doi:10.1109/ICUWB.2009.5288734

6. Støa, S., R. Chavez-Santiago, and I. Balasingham, "An ultra wideband communication channel model for the human abdominal region," 2010 IEEE GLOBECOM Workshops (GC Wkshps), 246-250, 2010.
doi:10.1109/GLOCOMW.2010.5700319

7. Khaleghi, A., R. Chavez-Santiago, and . Balasingham, "An improved ultra wideband channel model including the frequency-dependent attenuation for in-body communications," 2012 Annual International Conference of the IEEE Engineering in Medicine and Biology Society (EMBC), 1631-1634, 2012.
doi:10.1109/EMBC.2012.6346258

8. Sayrafian-Pour, K., W.-B. Yang, J. Hagedorn, J. Terrill, and K. Y. Yazdandoost, "A statistical path loss model for medical implant communication channels," 2009 IEEE 20th International Symposium on Personal, Indoor and Mobile Radio Communications, 2995-2999, 2009.
doi:10.1109/PIMRC.2009.5449869

9. Shi, J. and J. Wang, "Channel characterization and diversity feasibility for in-body to on-body communication using low-band UWB signals," 2010 3rd International Symposium on Applied Sciences in Biomedical and Communication Technologies (ISABEL), 1-4, 2010.
doi:10.1109/ISABEL.2010.5702784

10. De Santis, V. and M. Feliziani, "Intra-body channel characterization of medical implant devices," EMC Europe 2011 York, 816-819, 2011.

11. Alomainy, A., Y. Hao, Y. Yuan, and Y. Liu, "Modelling and characterisation of radio propagation from wireless implants at different frequencies," The 9th European Conference on Wireless Technology, 119-122, 2006.
doi:10.1109/ECWT.2006.280449

12. Manteghi, M. and A. Ibraheem, "On the study of the near-fields of electric and magnetic small antennas in lossy media," IEEE Transactions on Antennas and Propagation, Vol. 62, No. 1-6, 6491-6495, Dec. 2014.
doi:10.1109/TAP.2014.2359499

13. Manteghi, M., "Electrically coupled loop antenna as a dual for the planar inverted-F antenna," Microwave and Optical Technology Letters, Vol. 55, 1409-1412, 2013.
doi:10.1002/mop.27553

14. Ibraheem, A. and M. Manteghi, "Performance of an implanted electrically coupled loop antenna inside human body," Progress In Electromagnetics Research, Vol. 145, 195-202, 2014.
doi:10.2528/PIER14022005

15., , Online: http://transition.fcc.gov/oet/rfsafety/dielectric.html.

16. Human exposure to electromagnetic fields, high frequency (10 kHz to 300 GHz), , E. R. Committee, 1995.

17. In the matter of guidelines for evaluating the environmental effects of radiofrequency radiation, , US Federal Communications Commission, 1996.

18. Kurup, D., W. Joseph, G. Vermeeren, and L. Martens, "In-body path loss model for homogeneous human tissues," IEEE Transactions on Electromagnetic Compatibility, Vol. 54, 556-564, 2012.
doi:10.1109/TEMC.2011.2164803


© Copyright 2010 EMW Publishing. All Rights Reserved