Progress In Electromagnetics Research M
ISSN: 1937-8726
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By E. Hamiti, M. Ibrani, L. Ahma, V. Shala, and R. Halili

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Theoretical, software-computed and experimental evaluations of the exposure levels to electromagnetic fields generated by GSM 900, GSM 1800 and 3G base stations in urban areas, including determination of the minimum safe distances for population and occupational exposure, are presented. Using the software package SPECTRAemc with the P.1546 propagation wave model and a topographic digital map, the electromagnetic field levels were assessed considering the height of the receiving antenna to be at the height of human. At a few locations in the direction of maximum radiation intensity, in situ measurements of the electric field strength were performed. The base station power densities measured at a few exposure sites were in the range of 0.11 (μW/cm2) to 6.73 (μW/cm2). The results of Kosovo experimental survey are compared with surveys done in 21 countries in five continents. The power density values obtained in Kosovo are higher, but many times below the safety standard limits.

E. Hamiti, M. Ibrani, L. Ahma, V. Shala, and R. Halili, "Comparative Analysis of Electromagnetic Field Exposure Levels and Determination of the Minimum Safe Distances from Mobile-Phone Base Stations in Urban Areas," Progress In Electromagnetics Research M, Vol. 50, 117-128, 2016.

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