Vol. 55

Front:[PDF file] Back:[PDF file]
Latest Volume
All Volumes
All Issues
2017-04-03

Structural Optimization of Silica-Based 2 X 2 Multimode Interference Coupler Using a Real-Coded Micro-Genetic Algorithm

By Takashi Yasui, Jun-ichiro Sugisaka, and Koichi Hirayama
Progress In Electromagnetics Research M, Vol. 55, 169-178, 2017
doi:10.2528/PIERM17012204

Abstract

We propose a structural optimization method based on a real-coded micro-genetic algorithm to realize a weakly guided 2 × 2 multimode interference (MMI) coupler with low imbalance and excess loss over a wavelength range from 1520 to 1580 nm. The proposed method was applied to silica-based 2×2 MMI couplers with a relative refractive index difference of 5.5%. The optimized result showed an imbalance of less than 8.4×10−3 dB, an excess loss of less than 0.14 dB, and a normalized output power of more than 48% over the operation wavelength range. The proposed method achieved an optimized 2×2 MMI coupler after 250 times of propagation analysis per wavelength, which is less than 6.7% of those by the conventional methods for 4×4 and 1×4 MMI couplers, and was proven to be more effective than the conventional methods. To consider realistic optical devices, 2×2 MMI couplers whose values of structural parameters are close to the optimized values within the accuracy of typical fabrication tolerance are also analyzed. The results are comparable to those of the optimized 2×2 MMI coupler.

Citation


Takashi Yasui, Jun-ichiro Sugisaka, and Koichi Hirayama, "Structural Optimization of Silica-Based 2 X 2 Multimode Interference Coupler Using a Real-Coded Micro-Genetic Algorithm," Progress In Electromagnetics Research M, Vol. 55, 169-178, 2017.
doi:10.2528/PIERM17012204
http://www.jpier.org/PIERM/pier.php?paper=17012204

References


    1. Chen, S., X. Fu, J. Wang, Y. Shi, S. He, and D. Dai, "Compact dense wavelength-division (de)multiplexer utilizing a bidirectional arrayed-waveguide grating integrated with a Mach-Zehnder interferometer," J. Lightwave Technol., Vol. 33, No. 11, 2279-2285, June 2015.
    doi:10.1109/JLT.2015.2405510

    2. Bitincka, E., G. Gilardi, and M. K. Smit, "On-wafer optical loss measurements using ring resonators with integrated sources and detectors," IEEE Photon. J., Vol. 6, No. 5, 6601212, Oct. 2014.

    3. Ma, Y., S. Park, L. Wang, and S. T. Ho, "Ultracompact multimode interference 3-dB coupler with strong lateral confinement by deep dry etching," IEEE. Photon. Technol. Lett., Vol. 12, No. 5, 492-494, May 2000.
    doi:10.1109/68.841263

    4. Sakamaki, Y., Y. Nasu, T. Hashimoto, K. Hattori, T. Saida, and H. Takahashi, "Reduction of phase-difference deviation in 90˚ optical hybrid over wide wavelength range," IEICE Electronics Express, Vol. 7, No. 3, 216-221, Feb. 2010.
    doi:10.1587/elex.7.216

    5. Hashizume, Y., T. Goh, Y. Inoue, K. Hamamoto, and M. Itoh, "Polarization beam splitter with different core widths and its application to dual-polarization optical hybrid," J. Lightwave Technol., Vol. 33, No. 2, 408-414, Jan. 2015.
    doi:10.1109/JLT.2014.2387200

    6. Fandiño, J. S. and P. Muñoz, "Manufacturing tolerance analysis of an MMI-based 90° optical hybrid for InP integrated coherent receivers," IEEE Photon. J., Vol. 5, No. 2, Apr. 2013.
    doi:10.1109/JPHOT.2013.2247994

    7. Uematsu, T., Y. Ishizaka, Y. Kawaguchi, K. Saitoh, and M. Koshiba, "Design of a compact two-mode multi/demultiplexer consisting of multimode interference waveguides and a wavelength-insensitive phase shifter for mode-division multiplexing transmission," J. Lightwave Technol., Vol. 30, No. 15, 2421-2426, Aug. 2012.
    doi:10.1109/JLT.2012.2199961

    8. Han, L., S. Liang, H. Zhu, C. Zhang, and W. Wang, "A high extinction ratio polarization beam splitter with MMI couplers on InP substrate," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett., Vol. 27, No. 7, 782-785, Apr. 2015.
    doi:10.1109/LPT.2015.2392383

    9. Kleijn, E., E. M. van Vliet, D. Pustakhod, M. K. Smit, and X. J. M. Leijtens, "Amplitude and phase error correction algorithm for 3×3 MMI based Mach-Zehnder interferometers," J. Lightwave Technol., Vol. 33, No. 11, 2233-2239, Jun. 2015.
    doi:10.1109/JLT.2015.2409200

    10. Hai, M. S., M. N. Sakib, and O. Liboiron-Ladouceur, "Monolithic 1 × 2 MMI-based 25-Gb/s SOI DPSK demodulator integrated with SiGe photodetector," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett., Vol. 27, No. 6, 565-568, Mar. 2015.
    doi:10.1109/LPT.2014.2377176

    11. Takahashi, M., Y. Uchida, S. Yamasaki, J. Hasegawa, and T. Yagi, "Compact and low-Loss coherent mixer based on high Δ ZrO2-SiO2 PLC," J. Lightwave Technol., Vol. 32, No. 17, 3081-3088, Sept. 2014.
    doi:10.1109/JLT.2014.2338914

    12. Soldano, L. B. and E. C. M. Pennings, "Optical multi-mode interference devices based on self-imaging: Principles and applications," J. Lightwave Technol., Vol. 13, No. 4, 615-627, Apr. 1995.
    doi:10.1109/50.372474

    13. Sugiyama, K. and H. Tsuda, "Broadband 2×2 multimode interference coupler for T- and O-band communication by wavefront matching method," Advanced Photon., JM3A.32, 2015.

    14. Wang, Q., J. Lu, and S. He, "Optimal design of a multimode interference coupler using a genetic algorithm," Opt. Commu., Vol. 209, 131-136, Aug. 2002.
    doi:10.1016/S0030-4018(02)01664-4

    15. West, B. R. and S. Honkanen, "MMI devices with weak guiding designed in three dimensions using a genetic algorithm," Opt. Express, Vol. 12, No. 12, 2716-2722, Jun. 2004.
    doi:10.1364/OPEX.12.002716

    16. Sakamaki, Y., T. Saida, T. Shibata, Y. Hida, T. Hashimoto, M. Tamura, and H. Takahashi, "Y-branch waveguides with stabilized splitting ratio designed by wavefront matching method," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett., Vol. 18, No. 7, 817-819, Apr. 2006.
    doi:10.1109/LPT.2006.871836

    17. Goldberg, D. E., Genetic Algorithms in Search, Optimization and Machine Learning, Addison-Wesley, Boston, USA, 1989.

    18. Herrera, F., M. Lozano, and J. L. Verdegay, "Tackling real-coded genetic algorithms: Operators and tools for behavioural analysis," Artificial Intelligence Review, Vol. 12, No. 4, 265-319, Aug. 1998.
    doi:10.1023/A:1006504901164

    19. Krishnakumar, K., "Micro-genetic algorithms for stationary and nonstationary function optimization," SPIE: Intelligent Control and Adaptive Systems, Vol. 1196, 289-296, Feb. 1989.

    20. Coello, C. A. C. and G. T. Pulido, "A micro-genetic algorithm for multiobjective optimization, evolutionary multi-criterion opitimization," Lect. Notes Comput. Sci., Vol. 1993, 126-140, 2001.
    doi:10.1007/3-540-44719-9_9

    21. Chakravarty, S., R. Mittra, and N. B. Williams, "Application of a micro-genetic algorithms (MGA) to the design of broad-band microwave absorbers using multiple frequency selective surface screen buried in dielectrics," IEEE Trans. Antennas Propag., Vol. 50, No. 3, 284-296, Mar. 2002.
    doi:10.1109/8.999618

    22. Fallahi, A., M. Mishrikey, C. Hafner, and R. Vahldieck, "Efficient procedures for the optimization of frequency selective surfaces," IEEE Trans. Antennas Propag., Vol. 56, No. 5, 1340-1349, May 2008.
    doi:10.1109/TAP.2008.922678

    23. Mori, T., R. Murakami, Y. Sato, F. Campelo, and H. Igarashi, "Shape optimization of wideband antennas for microwave energy harvesters using FDTD," IEEE Trans. Magn., Vol. 51, No. 3, 8000804, Mar. 2015.
    doi:10.1109/TMAG.2014.2359677

    24. Tsuji, Y. and M. Koshiba, "A finite element beam propagation method for strongly guiding and longitudinally varying optical waveguides," J. Lightwave Technol., Vol. 14, No. 2, 217-222, Feb. 1996.
    doi:10.1109/50.482266

    25. Koshiba, M. and Y. Tsuji, "A wide-angle finite-element beam propagation method," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett., Vol. 8, No. 9, 1208-1210, Sept. 1996.
    doi:10.1109/68.531838

    26. Yasui, T., M. Koshiba, and Y. Tsuji, "A wide-angle finite element beam propagation method with perfectly matched layers for nonlinear optical waveguides," J. Lightwave Technol., Vol. 17, No. 10, 1909-1915, Oct. 1999.
    doi:10.1109/50.793775

    27. Nolting, H.-P. and R. März, "Results of benchmark tests for different numerical BPM algorithms," J. Lightwave Technol., Vol. 13, No. 2, 216-224, Feb. 1995.
    doi:10.1109/50.365209

    28. Okamoto, K., Fundamentals of Optical Waveguides, 2nd Ed., Academic Press, Burlington, MA, USA, 2005.