Vol. 77

Front:[PDF file] Back:[PDF file]
Latest Volume
All Volumes
All Issues

Indoor Localization Systems for Passive UHF RFID Tag Based on RSSI Radio Map Database

By Mugahid Omer, Yachao Ran, and Gui Yun Tian
Progress In Electromagnetics Research M, Vol. 77, 51-60, 2019


A classification algorithm is applied to UHF radio frequency identification (RFID) system to estimate the indoor position of a passive tag utilizing a received signal strength indicator (RSSI). Passive tag signals are collected by conventional UHF RFID reader antenna located at two different positions. K-NN and curve fitting are used for distance estimation and examined at different frequencies within the range 902-928 MHz to find suitable frequencies which can minimize the average error. In the proposed method, the measured RSSI values are compared with the fingerprint database in different frequencies to find the nearest neighbor. The best accuracy achieved at frequency range 926-928 MHz is 18.3 cm. The monitoring system is composed of a reader and tags under test, which makes the proposed system robust, easy to set up, and with low cost. The limitation of the proposed method is also discussed.


Mugahid Omer, Yachao Ran, and Gui Yun Tian, "Indoor Localization Systems for Passive UHF RFID Tag Based on RSSI Radio Map Database," Progress In Electromagnetics Research M, Vol. 77, 51-60, 2019.


    1. Zhu, X. W., S. K. Mukhopadhyay, and H. Kurata, "A review of RFID technology and its managerial applications in different industries," J. Eng. Technol. Manag., Vol. 29, No. 1, 152-167, 2012.

    2. Erguler, I., "A potential weakness in RFID-based Internet-of-things systems," Pervasive Mob. Comput., Vol. 20, 115-126, 2014.

    3. Zhang, J., G. Y. Tian, A. Marindra, A. Sunny, and A. Zhao, "A review of passive RFID tag antenna-based sensors and systems for structural health monitoring applications," Sensors, Vol. 17, No. 2, 265, 2017.

    4. Duroc, Y., G. A. Vera, and J. G. Martin, "Modified RSSI technique for the localization of passive UHF RFID tags in LOS channels," Int. J. Microw. Wirel. Technol., Vol. 5, No. 5, 645-651, 2013.

    5. Nikitin, V., R. Martinez, S. Ramamurthy, H. Leland, G. Spiess, and K. V. S. Rao, "Phase based spatial identification of UHF RFID tags," 2010 IEEE International Conference on RFID (IEEE RFID 2010), 102-109, 2010.

    6. Särkkä, S. V. Viikari, S. Member, and M. Huusko, "Phase-based UHF RFID tracking with nonlinear Kalman filtering and smoothing," IEEE Sens. J., Vol. 12, No. 5, 904-910, 2012.

    7. Mittra, R. and U. Pujare, "Real time estimation of motion and range of RFID tags," Proceedings of the 5th European Conference on Antennas and Propagation (EUCAP), 3804-3808, 2011.

    8. Li, X., Y. Zhang, and M. G. Amin, "Multifrequency-based range estimation of RFID tags," 2009 IEEE International Conference on RFID, 147-154, 2009.

    9. Whitney, A., J. Parker, M. Engelhard, Z. Kratzer, and J. Fessler, "RSSI informed phase method for distance calculations," 2015 IEEE International Conference on Advanced Intelligent Mechatronics (AIM), 1138-1142, 2015.

    10. Ni, L. M., Y. Liu, Y. C. Lau, A. Patil, and E. Lansing, "LANDMARC: Indoor location sensing using active RFID," Proceedings of the First IEEE International Conference on Pervasive Computing and Communications, 2003, (PerCom 2003), Vol. 10, No. 6, 701-710, 2003.

    11. Xiao, X., X. Jing, S. You, and J. Zeng, "An environmental-adaptive RSSI based indoor positioning approach using RFID," 2010 International Conference on Advanced Intelligence and Awareness Internet (AIAI 2010), No. 1, 127-130, 2010.

    12. Saab, S. S. and Z. S. Nakad, "A standalone RFID indoor positioning system using passive tags," IEEE Trans. Ind. Electron., Vol. 58, No. 5, 1961-1970, 2011.

    13. Decarli, N., F. Guidi, D. Dardari, and S. Member, "Passive UWB RFID for tag localization: Architectures and design,", Vol. 16, No. 5, 1385-1397, 2016.

    14. Parlak, S. and I. Marsic, "Non-intrusive localization of passive RFID tagged objects in an indoor workplace," 2011 IEEE International Conference on RFID-Technologies and Applications, 181-187, 2011.

    15. Zhang, Z., Z. Lu, V. Saakian, X. Qin, Q. Chen, and L. R. Zheng, "Item-level indoor localization with passive UHF RFID based on tag interaction analysis," IEEE Trans. Ind. Electron., Vol. 61, No. 4, 2122-2135, 2014.

    16. Shao, S. and R. J. Burkholder, "Item-level RFID tag location sensing utilizing reader antenna spatial diversity," IEEE Sens. J., Vol. 13, No. 10, 3767-3774, 2013.

    17. Martinelli, F., "A robot localization system combining RSSI and phase shift in UHF-RFID signals," IEEE Trans. Control Syst. Technol., Vol. 23, No. 5, 1782-1796, 2015.

    18. Scherhäufl, M., M. Pichler, and A. Stelzer, "UHF RFID localization based on evaluation of backscattered tag signals," IEEE Trans. Instrum. Meas., Vol. 64, No. 11, 2889-2899, 2015.

    19. Zhao, Y., K. Liu, and Y. Ma, "Similarity analysis-based indoor localization algorithm with backscatter information of passive UHF RFID tags," IEEE Sens. J., Vol. 17, No. 1, 185-193, 2017.

    20. Chen, X., L. Xie, C. Wang, and S. Lu, "Adaptive accurate indoor-localization using passive RFID," Proceedings of the International Conference on Parallel and Distributed Systems - ICPADS, 249-256, 2013.

    21. Uhf, R. L. Using, J. S. Choi, H. Lee, D. W. Engels, and S. Member, "Passive UHF RFID-based localization using detection of tag interference on smart shelf," 268 IEEE Trans. Syst., Vol. 42, No. 2, 268-275, 2012.

    22. Omer, M. and G. Y. Tian, "Indoor distance estimation for passive UHF RFID tag based on RSSI and RCS," Measurement, Vol. 127, 425-430, 2018.

    23. Griffin, J. D. and G. D. Durgin, "Complete link budgets for backscatter-radio and RFID systems," IEEE Antennas Propag. Mag., Vol. 51, No. 2, 11-25, 2009.

    24. Zhao, Y., K. Liu, Y. Ma, and Z. Li, "An improved k-NN algorithm for localization in multipath environments," EURASIP J. Wirel. Commun. Netw., Vol. 2014, No. 1, 208, 2014.

    25. Objects, I. and I. R. Power, "Propagation mechanisms," Wireless Communications, 2nd Edition, 2011.

    26. Lyu, Y., J. Patton, S. C. G. Periaswamy, and T. Roppel, "BFVP: A probabilistic UHF RFID tag localization algorithm using Bayesian filter and a variable power RFID model," IEEE Trans. Ind. Electron., Vol. 65, No. 10, 8250-8259, 2018.

    27. Djuric, M. B. M. R. M., "Proximity detection with RFID: A step toward the internet of things," IEEE Pervasive Comput., Vol. 14, No. 2, 70-76, 2015.