In this paper, we present an efficient Artificial Neural Network (ANN)-based model to estimate both azimuth and elevation arrival angles of a signal source. To achieve this goal, the ANN model is constructed using measurement data obtained by a rectangular antenna array in the space-frequency domain. Unlike classical super-resolution algorithms such as 2D MUSIC, the proposed model is capable to account for imperfections of measurement equipment as well as mutual couplings between array elements. The neural model has been verified for several angular positions and frequencies. It is shown that use of ANN model to estimate angular positions of a signal source yields more accurate results when compared to 2D MUSIC. Moreover, the neural model significantly outperforms 2D MUSIC in terms of speed of computation.
"Efficient Neural Network Approach for 2D DOA Estimation Based on Antenna Array Measurements," Progress In Electromagnetics Research,
Vol. 137, 741-758, 2013. doi:10.2528/PIER13012114
1. Yang, J., X. Wu, and Q. Wang, "Channel parameter estimation for scatter cluster model using modified MUSIC algorithm," International Journal of Antennas and Propagation, Vol. 2012, 1-6, 2012.
2. Schmidt, R., "Multiple emitter location and signal parameter estimation," IEEE Transactions on Antennas and Propagation, Vol. 34, 276-280, 1986. doi:10.1109/TAP.1986.1143830
3. Roy, R. and T. Kailath, "ESPRIT-estimation of signal parameters via rotational invariance techniques," IEEE Transactions on Acoustics, Speech and Signal Processing, Vol. 37, 984-995, 1989. doi:10.1109/29.32276
4. Pouramadi, M., M. Nakhkash, and A. A. Tadion, "Application of MDL criterion for microwave imaging by music algorithm," Progress In Electromagnetics Research B, Vol. 40, 261-278, 2012.
5. Gu, X. and Y. Zhang, "Resolution threshold analysis of MUSIC algorithm in radar range imaging," Progress In Electromagnetics Research B, Vol. 31, 297-321, 2011.
6. Solimene, R., A. Dell'Aversano, and G. Leone, "Interferometric time reversal music for small scatterer localization," Progress In Electromagnetics Research, Vol. 131, 243-258, 2012.
7. Lee, J.-H., Y.-S. Jeong, S.-W. Cho, W.-Y. Yeo, and K. S. J. Pister, "Application of the Newton method to improve the accuracy of toa estimation with the beamforming algorithm and the MUSIC algorithm," Progress In Electromagnetics Research, Vol. 116, 243-258, 2011.
8. Bencheikh, M. L. and Y. Wang, "Combined ESPRIT-Root MUSIC for DOA-DOD estimation in polarimetric bistatic MIMO radar," Progress In Electromagnetics Research Letters, Vol. 22, 109-117, 2011. doi:10.2528/PIERC11050205
9. Jiang, J.-J., F.-J. Duan, and J. Chen, "Three-dimensional localization algorithm for mixed near-field and far-field sources based on esprit and music method," Progress In Electromagnetics Research, Vol. 136, 435-456, 2013.
11. Jiang, J. and L. Gan, "Decoupled unitary esprit algorithm for 2-d DOA estimation," Progress In Electromagnetics Research C, Vol. 29, 219-314, 2012.
12. Ferreol, A., E. Boyer, and P. Larzabal, "Low cost algorithm for some bearing estimation methods in presence of separable nuisance parameters," Electronics Letters, Vol. 40, 966-967, 2004. doi:10.1049/el:20040537
13. Hou, Y. S., J. Yong, and L. J. Zhang, "Low cost algorithm for azimuth-elevation joint estimation, 9th International Conference on Signal Processing," Proceedings of the 9th Conference on Signal Processing ICSP, 92-95, 2008.
14. Tayem, N. and H. M. Kwon, "L-shaped 2-dimensional arrival angle estimation with propagator method," IEEE Transactions on Antennas and Propagation, Vol. 53, 1622-1630, 2005. doi:10.1109/TAP.2005.846804
15. Liang, J. and D. Liu, "Two l-shaped array-based 2-d DOAs estimation in the presence of mutual coupling," Progress In Electromagnetics Research, Vol. 112, 273-298, 2011.
16. Gan, L., J.-F. Gu, and P. Wei, "Estimation of 2-D DOA for noncircular sources using simultaneous SVD technique," IEEE Antennas and Wireless Propagation Letters, Vol. 7, 385-388, 2008. doi:10.1109/LAWP.2008.2000875
17. Stankovic, Z., B. Milovanovic, and N. Doncov, "Hybrid empirical-neural of loaded microwave cylindrical cavity," Progress In Electromagnetics Research, Vol. 83, 257-277, 2008. doi:10.2528/PIER08051503
18. Wefky, A. M., F. Espinosa, L. D. Santiago, A. Gardel, P. Revenga, and M. Martinez, "Modeling radiated electromagnetic emissions of electric motorcycles in terms of driving profile using mlp neural networks," Progress In Electromagnetics Research, Vol. 135, 231-244, 2013.
19. Zaharis, Z. D., K. A. Gotsis, and J. N. Sahalos, "Adaptive beamforming with low side lobe level using neural networks trained by mutated Boolean PSO," Progress In Electromagnetics Research, Vol. 127, 139-154, 2012. doi:10.2528/PIER12022806
20. Luo, M. and K.-M. Huang, "Prediction of the electromagnetic field in metallic enclosures using artificial neural networks," Progress In Electromagnetics Research, Vol. 116, 171-184, 2011.
21. O'Halloran, M., B. McGinley, R. C. Conceicao, F. Morgan, E. Jones, and M. Glavin, "Spiking neural networks for breast cancer classification in a dielectrically heterogeneous breast," Progress In Electromagnetics Research, Vol. 113, 413-428, 2011.
22. El Zooghby, A. H., C. G. Christodoulou, and M. Georgiopoulos, "A neural network-based smart antenna for multiple source tracking," IEEE Transactions on Antennas and Propagation, Vol. 48, 768-776, 2000. doi:10.1109/8.855496
23. Caylar, S., K. Leblebicioglu, and G. Dural, "A new neural network approach to the target tracking problem with smart structure," Proceedings of the IEEE AP-S International Symposium and USNC/URCI Meeting, 1121-1124, 2006.
24. Kim, Y. and H. Ling, "Direction of arrival estimation of humans with a small sensor array using an artificial neural network," Progress In Electromagnetics Research B, Vol. 27, 127-149, 2011.
25. Wang, M., S. Yang, S. Wu, and F. Luo, "A RBFNN approach for DOA estimation of ultra wideband antenna array," Neurocomputing, Vol. 71, 631-640, Elsevier, 2008. doi:10.1016/j.neucom.2007.08.023
26. He, H., T. Li, T. Yang, and L. He, "Direction of arrival (DOA) estimation algorithm based on the radial basis function neural networks," Advances in Intelligent and Soft Computing, Vol. 128, 389-394, 2011. doi:10.1007/978-3-642-25989-0_63
27. Sarevska, M., B. Milovanovic, and Z. Stankovic, "Alternative signal detection for neural network based smart antenna," Proceedings of the 7th Symposium on Neural Networks Application in Electrical Engineering, NEUREL, 85-89, 2004.
28. El Zooghby, A. H., C. G. Christodoulou, and M. Georgiopoulos, "Performance of radial basis function networks for direction of arrival estimation with antenna arrays," IEEE Transactions on Antennas and Propagation, Vol. 45, 1611-1617, 1997. doi:10.1109/8.650072
29. Le, Z., "Research on direction of arrival estimation algorithm in smart antenna," Ph.D. Thesis, South China University of Technology, Guangzhou, China, 2010.
30. Zhang, Y., Z. Gong, and Y. Sun, "DOA estimation in smart antenna based on general regression neural network," Journal of Military Communications Technology, Vol. 28, 23-25, 2007.
31. Sarevska, M., B. Milovanovic, and Z. Stankovic, "Reliability of the hidden layer in neural network smart antenna," WSEAS Transaction on Communications, Vol. 4, 556-563, 2005.
32. Agatonovic, M., Z. Stankovic, and B. Milovanovic, "High resolution two-dimensional DOA estimation using artificial neural networks," Proceedings of the 6th European Conference on Antennas and Propagation, EUCAP , 1-5, 2012.
33. Agatonovic, M., Z. Stankovic, N. Doncov, L. Sit, B. Milovanovic, and T. Zwick, "Application of artificial neural networks for efficient high-resolution 2D DOA estimation," Radioengineering, Vol. 21, 1178-1186, 2012.
34. Jorge, N., G. Fonseca, M. Coudyser, J.-J. Laurin, and J.-J. Brault, "On the design of a compact neural network-based DOA estimation system," IEEE Transactions on Antennas and Propagation, Vol. 58, 357-366, 2010. doi:10.1109/TAP.2009.2037766
35. Matsumoto, T. and Y. Kuwahara, "2D DOA estimation using beam steering antenna by the switched parasitic elements and RBF neural network," Electronics and Communications in Japan (Part I: Communications), Vol. 89, 22-31, 2006. doi:10.1002/ecja.20295
36. Zhou, Q.-C., H. Gao, F. Wang, and J. Shi, "Modified DOA estimation methods with unknown source number based on projection pretransformation," Progress In Electromagnetics Research B, Vol. 38, 387-403, 2012.
37. Kim, K. and T. K. Sarkar, "Direction-of-arrival (DOA) estimation using a single snapshot of voltages induced in a real array operating in any environment," Microwave and Optical Technology Letters, Vol. 32, 335-340, 2002. doi:10.1002/mop.10172
38. Liao, W.-J., S.-H. Chang, H.-C. Liu, L.-K. Li, C.-Y. Hsieh, and C.-C. Yao, "A beam switching array antenna for direction-of-arrival applications," Microwave and Optical Technology Letters, Vol. 53, 1601-1606, 2011. doi:10.1002/mop.26036
39. Cheng, S.-C. and K.-C. Lee, "Reducing the array size for DOA estimation by an antenna mode switch technique," Progress In Electromagnetics Research, Vol. 131, 117-134, 2012.
40. Zhang, Q. J. and K. C. Gupta, Neural Networks for RF and Microwave Design, Artech House, Norwood, MA, USA, 2000.
41. Randazzo, A., M. A. Abou-Khousa, M. Pastorino, and R. Zoughi, "Direction of arrival estimation based on support vector regression: Experimental validation and comparison with MUSIC," IEEE Antennas and Wireless Propagation Letters, Vol. 6, 379-382, 2007. doi:10.1109/LAWP.2007.903491