A four-level iterated cantor set fractal antenna for Internet of Things (IoT) applications is proposed in this work. The proposed antenna operates at 2.4 GHz and for the range of 5 GHz to 8.5 GHz. In the 5 GHz to 8.5 GHz range it covers a Wi-Fi802.11 Standard (4.9 GHz, 5 GHz, 5.9 GHz, 6 GHz), 6.56 GHz, and at the lower band it covers WiMax (2.5-2.7 GHz). The proposed antenna offers a gain up to 4 dBi with an efficiency up to 90%. The designed antenna is experimented with a partial ground plane, with and without notch to perceive its effects on S11 parameters. The antenna and its feed location is optimized for improved performance. The proposed antenna is analysed using the theory of characteristics mode analysis. The antenna is fabricated on a low-cost FR4 substrate with a dielectric constant of 4.4 anda substrate height of 1.6 mm. The antenna performance in terms of S11, VSWR, and Gain is validated by measuring the performance in an anechoic chamber with Agilent N5247A Vector Network Analyser (VNA). The antenna is designed and optimized in mentor graphics software and CST Studio. The results show good agreement between the simulated and measured performances of the antenna. The optimized geometry of the antenna is compact having overall dimensions of 32 mm×22 mm×1.6 mm and suitable for short-range IoT applications.
2. Gupta, A. K., P. S. R. Chowdary, and M. Vamshi Krishna, "Trends in IoT antenna design - A brief review," Test Engineering and Management, 14198-14203, July 2020, ISSN: 0193-4120.
3. Chindhi, P. S., H. P. Rajani, G. B. Kalkhambkar, and R. Khanai, "Characteristics mode analysis of modified inset-fed microstrip antenna for radio frequency energy harvesting, biosc," Biotech. Res. Comm., Vol. 13, No. 13, 171-176, Special Issue, 2020.
4. Chindhi, P. S., H. P. Rajani, and G. B. Kalkhambkar, "A tapered slot rectangular ultra-wideband microstrip patch antenna for radio frequency energy harvesting," Futuristic Communication and Network Technologies, 373-383, 2019.
5. Abdulkawi, W. M., A. F. A. Sheta, I. Elshafiey, and M. A. Alkanhal, "Design of low-profile single-and dual-band antennas for IoT applications," Electronics, Vol. 10, 2766, 2021.
6. Salucci, M., N. Anselmi, S. Goudos, and A. Massa, "Fast design of multiband fractal antennas through a system-by-design approach for NB-IoT applications," EURASIP Journal on Wireless Communications and Networking, Vol. 2019, 68, 2019.
7. Jing, J., J. Pang, H. Lin, Z. Qiu, and C. Liu, "A multiband compact low-profile planar antenna based on multiple resonant stubs," Progress In Electromagnetics Research Letters, Vol. 94, 1-7, 2020.
8. Kaur, M. and J. S. Sivia, "ANN and FA based design of hybrid fractal antenna for ISM band applications," Progress In Electromagnetics Research C, Vol. 98, 127-140, 2020.
9. Samson Daniel, R., "Asymmetric coplanar strip-fed with Hilbert curve fractal antenna for multiband operations," Wireless Personal Communications, Vol. 116, No. 1, 791-803, 2020.
10. Ez-Zaki, F., H. Belahrach, and A. Ghammaz, "Broadband microstrip antennas with Cantor set fractal slots for vehicular communications," International Journal of Microwave and Wireless Technologies, 1-14, 2020.
11. Bharti, G. and J. S. Sivia, "A design of multiband nested square shaped ring fractal antenna with circular ring elements for wireless applications," Progress In Electromagnetics Research C, Vol. 108, 115-125, 2021.
12. Chindhi, P. S., G. B. Kalkhambkar, H. P. Rajani, and R. Khanai, "A brief survey on metamaterial antennas: Its importance and challenges," Futuristic Communication and Network Technologies, 425-432, 2020.
13. Kalkhambkar, G., R. Khanai, and P. Chindhi, "Fractals: A novel method in the miniaturization of a patch antenna with bandwidth improvement, information and communication technology for intelligent systems," Smart Innovation, Systems and Technologies, 106, 2019.
14. Kalkhambkar, G., R. Khanai, and P. Chindhi, "Design and analysis of wideband polygonal microstrip fractal patch antenna with three dimensional finite difference time domain method and UPML boundaries," International Journal of Advanced Research in Engineering and Technology (IJARET), Vol. 11, No. 9, 323-336, Article ID: IJARET 11 09 033, September 2020.
15. Sharma, N. and S. S. Bhatia, "Comparative analysis of hybrid fractal antennas: A review," Int. J. RF Microw. Comput. Aided Eng., e22762, 2021.
16. Anguera, J., C. Puente, C. Borja, and J. Soler, "Fractal shaped antennas: A review," Encyclopedia of RF and Microwave Engineering, https://doi.org/10.1002/0471654507.eme128, 2005.
17. Mandelbrot, B. B., The Fractal Geometry of Nature, ISBN 0-7167-1186-9, w. 320 H. Freeman and Company, New York, 1983.
18. Anguera, J., A. Andújar, J. Jayasinghe, V. V. S. S. Sameer Chakravarthy, P. S. R. Chowdary, J. L. Pijoan, and T. A. C. Cattani, "Fractal antennas: An historical perspective, MDPI," Fractal Fract., Vol. 4, No. 1, 3, 2020.
19. Li, Y. S., X. D. Yang, C. Y. Liu, and T. Jiang, "Analysis and investigation of a cantor set fractal UWB antenna with a notch-band characteristic," Progress In Electromagnetics Research B, Vol. 33, 99-114, 2011.
20. Terlapu, S. K., P. S. R. Chowdary, C. Jaya, V. V. S. S. Sameer Chakravarthy, and S. C. Satpathy, "On the design of fractal UWB wide-slot antenna with notch band characteristics, microelectronics, electromagnetics and telecommunications," Lecture Notes in Electrical Engineering, 471, 2018.
21. Kaur, M. and J. S. Sivia, "Giuseppe Peano and Cantor set fractals based miniaturized hybrid fractal antenna for biomedical applications using artificial neural network and firefly algorithm," Int. J. RF Microw. Comput. Aided Eng., Vol. 2019, e22000, 2019.
22. Manimegalai, B. and S. Raju, "A multifractal cantor antenna for multiband wireless applications," IEEE Antennas and Wireless Propagation Letters, Vol. 8, 2009.
23. Lee, H.-M., "Effect of partial ground plane removal on the front-to-back ratio of a microstrip antenna," 2013 7th European Conference on Antennas and Propagation (EuCAP), 2013.