This paper presents asynchronous particle swarm optimization (APSO) applied to the time-domain inverse scattering problems of two-dimensional metallic cylinder buried in slab medium. For this study the finite-difference time-domain (FDTD) is employed for the analysis of the forward scattering part, while for the APSO is applied for the reconstruction of the two-dimensional metallic cylinder buried in slab medium, which includes of the location and shape the metallic cylinder. For the forward scattering, conceptually several electromagnetic pulses are launched to illuminate the unknown scatterers, and then the scattered electromagnetic fields around are measured. In order to efficiently describe the details of the cylinder shape, sub-gridding technique is implemented in the finite difference time domain method. Then, the measured EM fields are used for inverse scattering, in which APSO is employed to transform the inverse scattering problem into optimization problem. By comparing the measured scattered fields and the calculated scattered fields, the shape and location of the metallic cylinder are reconstructed. In addition, the effects of Gaussian noises on imaging reconstruction are also investigated.
2. Tikhonov, A. N. and V. Y. Arsenin, Solutions of Ill-posed Problems, Winston, Washington, DC, 1977.
3. Ping, X. W. and T. J. Cui, "The factorized sparse approximate inverse preconditioned conjugate gradient algorithm for finite element analysis of scattering problems," Progress In Electromagnetics Research, Vol. 98, 15-31, 2009.
4. Bindu, G., A. Lonappan, V. Thomas, C. K. Aanandan, and K. T. Mathew, "Dielectric studies of corn syrup for applications in microwave breast imaging," Progress In Electromagnetics Research, Vol. 59, 175-186, 2006.
5. Chien, W., "Inverse scattering of an un-uniform conductivity scatterer buried in a three-layer structure," Progress In Electromagnetics Research, Vol. 82, 1-18, 2008.
6. Bermani, E., S. Caorsi, and M. Raffetto, "Geometric and dielectric characterization of buried cylinders by using simple time-domain electromagnetic data and neural networks," Microwave and Optical Technology Letters, Vol. 24, No. 1, 24-31, Jan. 2000.
7. Moghaddam, M. and W. C. Chew, "Study of some practical issues in inversion with the born iterative method using time-domain data," IEEE Transactions on Antennas and Propagation, Vol. 41, No. 2, 177-184, Feb. 1993.
8. Abenius, E. and B. Strand, "Solving inverse electromagnetic problems using FDTD and gradient-based minimization," International Journal for Numerical Methods in Engineering, Vol. 68, No. 6, 650-673, Nov. 2006.
9. Rekanos, I. T., "Time-domain inverse scattering using lagrange multipliers: An iterative FDTD-based optimization technique," Journal of Electromagnetic Waves and Applications, Vol. 17, No. 2, 271-289, 2003.
10. Chen, X., D. Liang, and K. Huang, "Microwave imaging 3-D buried objects using parallel genetic algorithm combined with FDTD technique," Journal of Electromagnetic Waves and Applications, Vol. 20, No. 13, 1761-1774, 2006.
11. Huang, C. H., C. C. Chiu, C. L. Li, and K. C. Chen, "Time domain inverse scattering of a two-dimensional homogenous dielectric object with arbitrary shape by particle swarm optimization," Progress In Electromagnetic Research, Vol. 82, 381-400, 2008.
12. Carlisle, A. and G. Dozier, "An off-the-shelf PSO," Proceedings of the 2001 Workshop on Particle Swarm Optimization, Vol. 1, No. 6, 2001.
13. Semnani, A. and M. Kamyab, "An enhanced hybrid method for solving inverse scattering problems," IEEE Transactions on Magnetics, Vol. 45, 1534-1537, Mar. 2009.
14. Zhong, X. M., C. Liao, and W. Chen, "Image reconstruction of arbitrary cross section conducting cylinder using UWB pulse," Journal of Electromagnetic Waves Application, Vol. 21, No. 1, 25-34, 2007.
15. Huang, T. and A. S. Mohan, "A hybrid boundary condition for robust particle swarm optimization," IEEE Antennas and Wireless Propagation Letters, Vol. 4, 112-117, 2005.
16. Chen, X. and K. Huang, "Microwave imaging of buried inhomogeneous objects using parallel genetic algorithm combined with FDTD method," Progress In Electromagnetics Research, Vol. 53, 283-298, 2005.
17. Taflove, A. and S. Hagness, Computational Electrodynamics: The Finite-difference Time-domain Method, Artech House, Boston, MA, 2000.
18. Chevalier, M. W., R. J. Luebbers, and V. P. Cable, "FDTD local grid with materical traverse," IEEE Trans. Antennas and Propagation, Vol. 45, No. 3, Mar. 1997.
19. De Boor, C., A Practical Guide to Splines, Springer-Verlag, New York, 1978.
20. Li, C. L., C.-W. Liu, and S.-H. Chen, "Optimization of a PML absorber's conductivity profile using FDTD," Microwave and Optical Technology Lett., Vol. 37, 380-383.
21. Clerc, M., "The swarm and the queen: Towards a deterministic and adaptive particle swarm optimization," Proceedings of Congress on Evolutionary Computation, 1951-1957, Washington, DC, 1999.