In this article, we introduce an improved optimization based technique for the synthesis of circular antenna array. The main objective is to achieve minimum side lobe levels, maximum directivity and null control for the non-uniform, planar circular antenna array. The design procedure utilizes an improved variant of a prominent and efficient metaheuristic algorithm of current interest, namely the Differential Evolution (DE). An efficient classical local search technique called Solis Wet's algorithm is incorporated with the competitive Differential Evolution. While the competitive DE is used for the global exploration, Solis Wet's algorithm is employed for local search. Combining the capability of both techniques the hybrid algorithm exhibits improved performance for circular array design problem. Three examples of circular array design problems are considered to illustrate the effectiveness of the hybrid algorithm cDESW (Competiteve Differential Evolution with Solis Wet's technique). The design results obtained using cDESW has comfortably outperformed the results obtained by other state-of-the-art metaheuristics like CLPSO, JADE.
2. Chandran, S. (ed.), Adaptive Antenna Arrays: Trends and Applications, Springer, 2004.
3. Tsoulos, G. V. (ed.), Adaptive Antennas for Wireless Communications, IEEE Press, Piscataway, NJ, 2001.
4. Rahmat-Samii, Y. and E. Michielssen, Electromagnetic Optimization by Genetic Algorithms, Wiley-New York, 1999.
5. Udina, A., N. M. Martin, and L. C. Jain, Linear antenna array optimization by genetic means, Third International Conference on Knowledge-based Intelligent Information Engineering Systems Adelaide, Australia, Sept. 1999.
6. Cengiz, Y. and H. Tokat, "Linear antenna array design with use of genetic, memetic and tabu search optimization algorithms," Progress In Electromagnetics Research C, Vol. 1, 63-72, 2008.
7. Weng, W-C., F. Yang, and A. Z. Elsherbeni, "Linear antenna array synthesis using Taguchi's method: A novel optimization technique in electromagnetics," IEEE Transactions on Antennas and Propagation, Vol. 55, No. 3, 723-730, Mar. 2007.
8. Ares-Pena, F. J., A. Rodriguez-Gonzalez, E. Villanueva-Lopez, and S. R. Rengarajan, "Genetic algorithms in the design and optimization of antenna array patterns," IEEE Transactions on Antennas and Propagation, Vol. 47, 506-510, Mar. 1999.
9. Tian, Y. B. and J. Qian, "Improve the performance of a linear array by changing the spaces among array elements in terms of genetic algorithm," IEEE Transactions on Antennas and Propagation, Vol. 53, 2226-2230, Jul. 2005.
10. Khodier, M. M. and C. G. Christodoulou, "Linear array geometry synthesis with minimum side lobe level and null control using particle swarm optimization," IEEE Transactions on Antennas and Propagation, Vol. 53, No. 8, Aug. 2005.
11. Dessouky, M. I., H. A. Sharshar, and Y. A. Albagory, "Efficient sidelobe reduction technique for small-sized concentric circular arrays," Progress In Electromagnetics Research, Vol. 65, 187-200, 2006.
12. Dessouky, M. I., H. A. Sharshar, and Y. A. Albagory, "Optimum normalized-Gaussian tapering window for side lobe reduction in uniform concentric circular arrays," Progress In Electromagnetics Research, Vol. 69, 35-46, 2007.
13. Dessouky, M., H. Sharshar, and Y. Albagory, "A novel tapered beamforming window for uniform concentric circular arrays," Journal of Electromagnetic Waves and Applications, Vol. 20, No. 14, 2077-2089, 2006.
14. Chen, T. B., Y. L. Dong, Y. C. Jiao, and F. S. Zhang, "Synthesis of circular antenna array using crossed particle swarm optimization algorithm," Journal of Electromagnetic Waves and Applications, Vol. 20, No. 13, 1785-1795, 2006.
15. Fallahi, R. and M. Roshandel, "Effect of mutual coupling and configuration of concentric circular array antenna on the signal-to-interference performance in CDMA systems," Progress In Electromagnetics Research, Vol. 76, 427-447, 2007.
16. Zhang, J., W. Wu, and D. G. Fang, 360° scanning multi-beam antenna based on homogeneous ellipsoidal lens fed by circular array, Electronics Letters, 298-300, Institution of Engineering and Technology, 2011.
17. Panduro, M., A. L. Mendez, R. Dominguez, and G. Romero, "Design of non-uniform circular antenna arrays for side lobe reduction using the method of genetic algorithms," Int. J. of Electron. and Commun., AEU, Vol. 60, 713-717, 2006.
18. Shihab, M., Y. Najjar, N. Dib, and M. Khodier, "Design of non-uniform circular antenna arrays using particle swarm optimization," Journal of Electrical Engineering, Vol. 59, No. 4, 216-220, 2008.
19. Panduro, M. A., C. A. Brizuela, L. I. Balderas, and D. A. Acosta, "A comparison of genetic algorithms, particle swarm optimization and the differential evolution method for the design of scannable circular antenna arrays," Progress In Electromagnetics Research B, Vol. 13, 171-186, 2009.
20. Gurel, L. and O. Ergul, "Design and simulation of circular arrays of trapezoidal-tooth log-periodic antennas via genetic optimization," Progress In Electromagnetics Research, Vol. 85, 243-260, 2008.
21. Barkat, O. and A. Benghalia, "Synthesis of superconducting circular antennas placed on circular array using a particle swarm optimisation and the full-wave method," Progress In Electromagnetics Research B, Vol. 22, 103-119, 2010.
22. Singh, U. and T. S. Kamal, "Design of non-uniform circular antenna arrays using biogeography-based optimization," Microwaves, Antennas & Propagation, IET, 1365-1370, 2011.
23. Roy, G. G., S. Das, P. Chakraborty, and P. N. Suganthan, "Design of non-uniform circular antenna arrays using a modified invasive weed optimization algorithm," IEEE Transactions on Antennas and Propagation, 110-118, 2011.
24. Huang, M., S. Yang, G. Li, and Z. Nie, "Synthesis of low and equal-ripple sidelobe patterns in time-modulated circular array antennas," J. Infrared Milli. Terahz. Waves, Vol. 30, No. 8, 802-812, 2009.
25. Storn, R. and K. Price, "Differential evolution --- A simple and efficient heuristic for global optimization over continuous spaces," Journal of Global Optimization, Vol. 11, No. 4, 341-359, 1997.
26. Zhang, J. and A. C. Sanderson, "JADE: Adaptive differential evolution with optional external archive," IEEE Transactions on Evolutionary Computation, Vol. 13, No. 5, 945-958, Oct. 2009.
27. Das, S. and P. N. Suganthan, "Differential evolution --- A survey of the state-of-the-art," IEEE Transactions on Evolutionary Computation, Vol. 15, No. 1, 4-31, 2011.
28. Qing, A., "Electromagnetic inverse scattering of multiple two-dimensional perfectly conducting objects by the differential evolution strategy," IEEE Transactions on Antennas and Propagation, Vol. 51, 1251-1262, 2003.
29. Huang, M., S. Yang, W. Xiong, and Z.-P. Nie, "Design and optimization of spherical lens antennas including practical feed models," Progress In Electromagnetics Research, Vol. 120, 355-370, 2011.
30. Rocca, P., G. Oliveri, and G. Massa, "Differential evolution as applied to electromagnetics," IEEE Transactions on Antennas and Propagation, Vol. 53, No. 1, 38-49, 2011.
31. Solis, F. J. and R. J. Wets, "Minimization by random search techniques," Mathematical Operations Research, Vol. 6, 19-30, 1981.
32. Liang, J. J., A. K. Qin, P. N. Suganthan, and S. Baskar, "Comprehensive learning particle swarm optimizer for global optimization of multimodal functions," IEEE Transactions on Evolutionary Computation, Vol. 10, 281-295, 2006.