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Vol. 103, 177-194, 2023
download: 136
Characteristic Basic Function Method Accelerated by a New Physical Optics Approximation for the Scattering from a Dielectric Object
Christophe Bourlier
This paper presents an efficient algorithm to calculate the primary basis functions (PBFs) of the characteristic basis function method (CBFM) for the scattering from a dielectric object. The use of the Poggio-Miller-Chang-Harrington-Wu (PMCHW) integral equation discretized by the Galerkin method of moments (MoM) with Rao-Wilton-Glisson basis functions leads to solving a linear system. For a collection of incident waves and for a given block, the CBFM needs to invert the whole PMCHW self-impedance matrix to calculate the PBFs. By decomposing the PMCHW impedance matrix into four sub-matrices of halved sizes, related to the electric and magnetic surface currents and their coupling, the computation of the PBFs is accelerated by using the impedance matrix derived from the electric field integral equation (EFIE) combined with the physical optics (named POZ) approximation. In addition, the PO developed by Jakobus and Landstorfer [35], named POJ and valid for a perfectly-conducting scatterer, is extended to a dielectric surface. Recently, the MECA (modified equivalent current approximation, Li and Mittra [29]) based on the tangent plane or Kirchhoff approximation, has also been applied to expedite the PBF calculation. The presented method, HCBFM-POZ (H means halved), accelerated by the adaptive cross approximation (ACA), is tested and compared with CBFM-MECA and HCBFM-POJ on a cube and on a sphere. The numerical results show that HCBFM-POZ is valid for both the shapes, whereas the CBFM-MECA and HCBFM-POJ are not valid on a sphere.
Characteristic Basic Function Method Accelerated by a New Physical Optics Approximation for the Scattering from a Dielectric Object
Vol. 103, 159-176, 2023
download: 129
Compact Multiband High-Gain Millimeter-Wave Planar Antenna
Asmaa Elsayed Farahat and Khalid Fawzy Ahmed Hussein
A novel miniaturized high-gain Vivaldi antenna printed on a thin substrate is proposed for operation as multi-band antenna for millimeter-wave applications. The present work proposes a novel geometrical design of the Vivaldi antenna that is printed on the opposite faces of a thin dielectric substrate. The antenna has compact size, and its dimensions are optimized to enhance the performance regarding the bandwidth of impedance matching, gain, and radiation efficiency. To maximize the gain within a desired frequency band, each arm of the Vivaldi antenna is loaded by a ring-shaped parasitic element. The results of the parametric study for antenna design optimization regarding the enhancement of the impedance matching bandwidth and the antennas gain are presented and discussed. Also, it is shown through parametric study that the size and location of the parasitic rings can be optimized to enhance the antenna gain over the desired frequency range. The multiband operation of the proposed Vivaldi antenna is explained in view of the multimode operation that is illustrated by the distributions of the surface current on the antenna arms and the electric field in tapered slot. A novel microstrip line/parallel-strip line balun structure is proposed for feeding the balanced Vivaldi antenna and to achieve wideband impedance matching. The proposed Vivaldi antenna is fabricated and subjected to performance evaluation through measurements. It is shown that the antenna impedance is matched to 50 Ω over the four frequency bands: 22.0-27.7 GHz, 32.0-37.5 GHz, 41.5-46.6 GHz, and 51.7-56.7 GHz. The corresponding bandwidths are 5.7, 5.5, 5.1, and 5.0 GHz, respectively with percent bandwidths of 23%, 16%, 11.6%, and 9.2%, respectively. In spite of its compact size, the achieved values of the maximum gain are 6 dBi, 9 dBi, 11.4 dBi, and 12 dBi over the mentioned frequency bands, respectively. Also, the corresponding values of radiation efficiency are 98%, 97%, 95%, and 93%, respectively. The proposed Vivaldi antenna is fabricated and subjected to measurement for experimental investigation of its performance. The measurement shows good agreement with the simulation results.
Compact Multiband High-gain Millimeter-wave Planar Antenna
Vol. 103, 139-157, 2023
download: 274
Octa-Port High Gain MIMO Antenna Backed with EBG for mm -Wave Applications
Nallagundla Suresh Babu , Abdul Quaiyum Ansari , Sachin Kumar , Binod Kanaujia , Ghanshyam Singh and Bhawna Goyal
This article presents a miniaturized octa-port high gain multiple-input-multiple-output (MIMO) antenna loaded with an electromagnetic band gap (EBG) layer for the use in 5G wireless communication applications. Each resonator of the presented antenna is comprised of a rectangular-like patch with truncated side edges and a partial ground plane. A layer of EBG unit cells is introduced underneath the antenna elements to increase the gain and restrain the surface wave effects, obtaining improved isolation amongst the resonating elements. The -10 dB impedance bandwidth of the prospective antenna with EBG is 12 GHz (21-33 GHz), and it provides isolation of >28 dB. The peak gain of the EBG-backed antenna is 17 dB. The presented mm-wave MIMO antenna offer decent diversity proficiency metrics like envelope correlation coefficient (<0.36), diversity gain (~10 dB), and total active reflection coefficient (-24.75 dB). The overall size of the octa-port MIMO antenna is 27.2 mm × 27.2 mm. The presented MIMO antenna could be used for n257/n258/n261 mm-wave bands.
Octa-port High Gain MIMO Antenna Backed with EBG for mm-Wave Applications
Vol. 103, 119-138, 2023
download: 76
Electromagnetic Force and Momentum in Classical Macroscopic Dipolar Media
Arthur D. Yaghjian
Using realistic classical models of microscopic electric-charge electric dipoles and electric-current (Amperian) magnetic dipoles, it is proven that the Einstein-Laub macroscopic electromagnetic force on a macroscopic-continuum volume of these classical dipoles equals the sum of the microscopic electromagnetic forces on the discrete classical dipoles in that volume. The internal (hidden) momentum of the discrete Amperian magnetic dipoles is rigorously derived and properly included in the determination of the macroscopic force from the spatial averaging of the microscopic forces. Consequently, the Abraham/Einstein-Laub rather than the Minkowski macroscopic electromagnetic-field momentum density gives the total microscopic electromagnetic-field momentum in that volume. The kinetic momentum is found for the volume of the macroscopic continuum from Newton's relativistic equation of motion. It is shown that the difference between the kinetic and canonical momenta in a volume of the macroscopic continuum is equal to the sum of the ``hidden electromagnetic momenta'' within the electric-current magnetic dipoles and within hypothetical magnetic-current electric dipoles replacing the electric-charge electric dipoles in the classical macroscopic continuum. To obtain the correct unambiguous value of the force on a volume inside the continuum from the force-momentum expression, it is mandatory that the surface of that volume be hypothetically separated from the rest of the continuum by a thin free-space shell. Two definitive experiments performed in the past with time varying fields and forces are shown to conclusively confirm the Einstein-Laub/Abraham formulation over the Minkowski formulation.
Electromagnetic Force and Momentum in Classical Macroscopic Dipolar Media
Vol. 103, 101-118, 2023
download: 135
Quantum Illumination Radar Using Polarization States of Photons in Atmosphere: Quantum Information Approach
Sylvain Borderieux , Arnaud Coatanhay and Ali Khenchaf
The quantum illumination radar uses pairs of entangled photons to enhance the detection sensitivity of a reflecting target. In this paper, we worked on a quantum illumination radar using a pair of entangled photons in polarization in the microwave frequency range in the atmosphere. We studied the quantum information evolution modeling the propagation of a photon in the atmosphere while building two binary decision strategies for the QI radar. We focused on the quantum information evolution showing that the quantum discord representing quantum correlations beyond entanglement could represent an interesting resource to explore for the subject of quantum radar. In addition, we made an approximative estimation of the entanglement survival distance in the atmosphere. Results showed that an optimization should be found to favour the survival of quantum correlations or the signal-to-noise ratios calculated with the binary decision strategy.
Quantum Illumination Radar Using Polarization States of Photons in Atmosphere: Quantum Information Approach
Vol. 103, 75-99, 2023
download: 144
Sensorless Control of Interior Permanent Magnet Synchronous Motor with Triangular Transform Current Self-Demodulation in the Estimating d -q Axis
Dingdou Wen , Xincheng Zhu , Zhun Cheng , Yanqin Zhang and Wenting Zhang
To address the issues of complex current demodulation, large rotor position estimation error, and position estimation error varying with speed in the high-frequency (HF) rotating voltage injection (HRVI) method for interior permanent magnet synchronous motor (IPMSM), a sensorless control of IPMSM with triangular transform (TT) current self-demodulation in the estimating d-q axis is proposed. Firstly, the HF currents estimated on the d and q axes are multiplied, and the resulting signal is constructed through TT to achieve phase shift compensation of positive and negative sequence HF currents. At the same time, a position error signal is constructed. Then, a low-pass filter is used to extract the position error signal and achieve self-demodulation of the current. The experimental results show that this method reduces the average position error by 15.0% under steady-state conditions and reduces the fluctuation range of position error by 17.6% under full load conditions.
Sensorless Control of Interior Permanent Magnet Synchronous Motor with Triangular Transform Current Self-demodulation in the Estimating d-q Axis
Vol. 103, 55-73, 2023
download: 123
Multi-Attribute Synergetic Decision-Making Algorithm for 5G Integrated Heterogeneous Wireless Network
Xiaoxin Wu , Chenwei Feng , Yaxi Yang and Silei Li
The next-generation communication network will be primarily based on the 5G networks, with multiple wireless Radio Access Technologies (RATs) coexisting. The factors influencing user experience are complex and diverse, making it difficult for any single wireless technology to meet all user needs. Most existing network selection algorithms focus on either the user side or the network side, leading to the problem of network load imbalance. Therefore, this paper proposes a Multi-Attribute Synergetic Decision (MASD) algorithm for 5G integrated heterogeneous wireless network. First, implement the pre-filtering of the candidate network set. Taking into account the diversity of user services, this algorithm focuses on Quality of Service (QoS), user preferences, and network load. Analytic Hierarchy Process (AHP) and Standard Deviation (SD) are used to calculate the weights of each attribute. Based on the synergetic theory, the entropy value of the candidate network system is obtained. Simulation results demonstrate that this algorithm effectively coordinates various factors to select the most suitable network for access. It reduces unnecessary handovers, avoids the ping-pong effect, and achieves load balancing to a certain extent.
Multi-attribute Synergetic Decision-making Algorithm for 5G Integrated Heterogeneous Wireless Network
Vol. 103, 37-53, 2023
download: 147
A Torque Ripple Suppression Strategy for Hysteresis Segmented PWM-DITC Permanent Magnet Assisted Switched Reluctance Motor
Chaozhi Huang , Lixiang Dai , Yuliang Wu and Yanwen Sun
In the traditional Direct Instantaneous Torque Control (DITC) strategy for permanent magnet assisted switched reluctance motors, the hysteresis control mode during the commutation phase and the single-phase on-period is not smooth, resulting in excessive synthetic torque ripple. In this paper, we analyzed this problem, combined with the principle of hysteresis segmentation control and pulse width modulation (PWM), and proposed a hysteresis segmented PWM-DITC strategy. By analyzing the torque error changes in each division area of the inductor, the torque error is adjusted by the internal hysteresis loop during the commutation period and the single-phase on-period, so that the hysteresis control is smoother, and the torque ripple is reduced. At the same time, the linear model of rotor angle and inductance is established; the PWM voltage modulation calculation formula at both ends of the winding is calculated and derived; the hysteresis output signal at the commutation time and the single-phase on-time is optimized to further suppress the torque ripple. Finally, through simulation and experimental demonstration, the proposed hysteresis loop segmented PWM-DITC strategy can overcome the problem of unsmooth hysteresis control mode and can effectively suppress torque ripple.
A Torque Ripple Suppression Strategy for Hysteresis Segmented PWM-DITC Permanent Magnet Assisted Switched Reluctance Motor
Vol. 103, 19-36, 2023
download: 119
3-d Electrical Impedance Imaging of Lung Injury
Ming Ma , Zepeng Hao , Qi Wang , Xiuyan Li , Xiaojie Duan , Jianming Wang and Hui Feng
Pulmonary edema assessment is a key factor in monitoring and guiding the treatment of critically ill patients. To date, the methods available at the bedside to estimate the physiological correlation of pulmonary edema and extravascular pulmonary fluid are often unreliable or require invasive measurements. The aim of this article is to develop an imaging method of reliably assessing pulmonary edema by utilizing functional electrical impedance tomography. In this article, the Split-Bregman algorithm is used to solve the Total Variation (TV) minimization problem in EIT image reconstruction. A thorax model is constructed according to CT images of rats. Through simulation and experiment, the proposed method improves the quality of reconstructed image significantly compared with existing methods. A pulmonary edema experiment in rats is also carried out. The development of pulmonary edema is analyzed numerically through EIT images.
3-D Electrical Impedance Imaging of Lung Injury
Vol. 103, 1-18, 2023
download: 148
Optimizing 1D Dielectric Electromagnetic Bandgap (d -EBG) Structures Using Multistage Genetic Algorithm (MS-GA) and Considering Parameter Variations
Chouwei Guo , Yusheng Hu , Lijin He and Mengyuan Niu
An optimization method utilizing a multistage genetic algorithm (MS-GA) and considering parameter variations has been proposed to obtain optimal design of one-dimensional dielectric bandgap(1D D-EBG) structures with a few periods in small packaging power distribution networks. One-dimensional finite method (1D FEM) is used to improve computational efficiency and iteration speed. MS-GA consists of 3 stages: In stage 1, the population was initialized by Hamming distance, and the fitness was calculated to determine the number of EBG period. In stage 2, genetic manipulation and sensitivity analysis were used to improve local search ability and obtain preliminary results. In stage 3, cubic spline interpolation and local integral were used to reconstruct the fitness evaluation function considering parameter deviation, adjust the results and obtain the optimal parameters. Three optimized target frequency bands with center frequencies of 2.4 GHz, 3.5 GHz and 28 GHz were optimized, and Pearson coefficient was used to analyze the correlation between the parameters to better understand the influence of parameter deviation on the optimization results. The achieved results meet the optimization object within the allowable range of parameter errors, and the parameter constraints were successfully met for all three designs, with their final dimensions below 20 mm. Three-dimensional full-wave simulation software was used to simulate and analyze the stopband bands, and the simulation results were consistent with the calculation results.
Optimizing 1D Dielectric Electromagnetic Bandgap (D-EBG) Structures Using Multistage Genetic Algorithm (MS-GA) and Considering Parameter Variations