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Vol. 106, 131-149, 2024
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A Dual Band Eight Port MIMO Antenna with EBG Metamaterial for V2X Application
Maruti R. Jadhav and Uttam L. Bombale
Several communication systems use multiple input and multiple output (MIMO) antennas to rapidly broadcast and receive data streams. Several current research works on MIMO antennas for vehicle-to-everything (V2X) applications were detailed, along with some limitations such as significant mutual coupling and antenna isolation. To address these difficulties, the manuscript presented a novel metamaterial-based dual-band eight-port MIMO antenna for V2X applications. The proposed eight-port MIMO antenna could be applied to V2X applications in the frequency range of 5.6 GHz to 5.8 GHz. The antenna could resonate at two frequencies, namely 5.64 GHz and 5.73 GHz. The MIMO antenna was constructed with a polyimide substrate and a coplanar waveguide feed (CWF) line. To attain better isolation, a plus shape defected ground structure (Plus shape DGS) was used in this research. By using the binary waterwheel plant optimization algorithm, the antenna parameters are optimized. The proposed antenna was analyzed under different parameters such as gain, return loss, Voltage Standing Wave Ratio (VSWR), axial ratio, and other diversity performances of MIMO antenna like Envelope correlation coefficient (ECC), Total Active Reflection Coefficient (TARC), Mean Effective Coefficient (MEG), and Diversity Gain (DG). The proposed antenna is used in a binary waterwheel plant optimization algorithm for hyperparameter tuning. The proposed antenna obtained return loss values of -36.01 dB and -39 dB at the resonating frequencies of 5.64 GHz and 5.73 GHz, respectively. It achieved gain values of 12.41 dB, 10.7 dB, and ECC values of less than 0.025. The proposed model obtained better results than other models in this comparison analysis.
Vol. 106, 113-129, 2024
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FFT-Acceleration and Stabilization of the 3D Marching-on-in-Time Contrast Current Density Volume Integral Equation for Scattering from High Contrast Dielectrics
Petrus Wilhelmus Nicolaas (Pieter) Van Diepen , Martijn Constant van Beurden and Roeland Johannes Dilz
An implicit causal space-time Galerkin scheme applied to the contrast current density volume integral equation gives rise to a marching-on-in-time scheme known as MOT-JVIE, which is accelerated and stabilized via a fully embedded FIR filter to compute the electromagnetic scattering from high permittivity dielectric objects discretized with over a million voxels. A review of two different acceleration approaches, previously developed for two-dimensional time-domain surface integral equations based on fast Fourier transforms (FFTs), leads to an understanding why these schemes obtain the same order of acceleration and the extension of this FFT-acceleration to a three-dimensional MOT-JVIE. The positive definite stability analysis (PDSA) for the MOT-JVIE shows that the number of voxels for a stable MOT-JVIE discretization is restricted by the finite precision of the matrix elements. The application of the PDSA provides the insight that stability can be enforced through regularization, at the cost of accuracy. To minimize the impact in accuracy, FIR-regularization is introduced, which is based on low group-delay linear-phase high-pass FIR-filters. We demonstrate the capabilities of the FFT-accelerated FIR-regularized MOT-JVIE for a number of numerical experiments with high permittivity dielectric scatterers.
FFT-acceleration and Stabilization of the 3D Marching-on-in-time Contrast Current Density Volume Integral Equation for Scattering from High Contrast Dielectrics
Vol. 106, 101-112, 2024
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Design and Optimization of a Circular Ring-Shaped UWB Fractal Antenna for Wireless Multi-Band Applications Using Particle Swarm Optimization
Rania Hamdy Elabd and Ahmed Jamal Abdullah Al-Gburi
This study introduces a groundbreaking circular ring-shaped fractal antenna optimized using particle swarm optimization (PSO) for wireless ultra-wideband (UWB) applications. The proposed fractal antenna design, featuring a central plus sign and an outer circular ring with eight smaller rings, enhances bandwidth for UWB response. The ground plane is modified with an etched curved slit to optimize antenna impedance. Utilizing PSO, we determine the fractal antenna's dimensions with optimization goals of minimizing size while ensuring |S11| < -10 dB. Experimental data demonstrates strong performance across the 2.05 GHz-14.5 GHz frequency range, covering diverse wireless standards like UWB from 3.1 up to 10.6 GHz, X-band from 8 up to 12.5 GHz, and lower band of Ku from 12.5 to 14.5 GHz. Consistent measured and simulated results validate our contribution's applicability. Additionally, a time-domain analysis underscores the antenna's adaptability to UWB applications, offering insights into its response to transient signals.
Design and Optimization of a Circular Ring-shaped UWB Fractal Antenna for Wireless Multi-band Applications Using Particle Swarm Optimization
Vol. 106, 85-99, 2024
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Biomedical Telemetry Antenna Innovations: Progress, Uses, and Prospects for the Future
Vivek Gupta and Rajeev Kumar
Biomedical telemetry is, therefore, significant considering it facilitates prompt telecommunication as well as tracking of medical devices between centralized systems and patients. The availability and quality of communication of information are determined by the performance and selection of the telemetry antenna. This article analyzes the current state of BMA technology, aiming to extend the communication range and transmission speed of the data. The research article intends to contribute to the development of wireless technology. A plethora of antenna sizes are tackled from wearable to insertable antennas in addition to the improvements in materials and fabrication methods. The present review paper puts the thesis on only a few of the numerous biomedical telemetry antenna applications in healthcare, and these are the Internet of Medical Things (IoMT) and remote patient monitoring applications. it discusses case studies where better antennas had led to the creation of new therapeutic strategies, and diagnostic capacities, and had overall improved the quality of services. Therefore, the architectural problems of the existing designs are scrutinized, and this gives the other research areas the chance to be explored. A biological telemetry antenna is set to be the mobile edge computing solution that combines artificial intelligence, a 5G network, and edge computing. It also improves capital effectiveness over the transition period. Presentation makes it evident, why antennas are the essential component of the connected healthcare system and how antennas might redefine individualized care and the healthcare ecosystem. In conclusion, this research provides an extensive overview of the developments, uses, and future directions of biomedical telemetry antenna technology. It is an invaluable resource for academics, engineers, and medical professionals who seek to understand more about the evolving nature of this crucial component of modern healthcare systems.
Biomedical Telemetry Antenna Innovations: Progress, Uses, and Prospects for the Future
Vol. 106, 73-84, 2024
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Decoupling Control of Six-Pole Axial-Radial Active Magnetic Bearing Based on Improved Linear Active Disturbance Rejection Optimized by Least Square Support Vector Machine
Zhen Wang , Gai Liu , Jintao Ju and Huangqiu Zhu
To improve the coupling problem between radial degrees of freedom in six-pole axial-radial active magnetic (AR-AMB), a decoupling control method based on an improved linear active disturbance rejection decoupling control strategy optimized by the least square support vector machine (LSSVM-ILADRC) is proposed. Firstly, the structure and working principle of the six-pole AR-AMB are introduced, and the mathematical model of suspension force is derived. Secondly, cascaded linear extended state observers (LESOs) are used to estimate the disturbance in degrees of freedom step by step, with LESO1 providing an initial estimate of the total disturbance, and LESO2 estimating and compensating for the difference between the initial estimate and the actual disturbance. The regression prediction function of LSSVM is employed to enhance the response speed and estimation accuracy of the LESO to the disturbance. Finally, the simulation and experimental research show that the proposed LSSVM-ILADRC decoupling control method has better decoupling performance and anti-interference performance than the ILADRC decoupling control method.
Decoupling Control of Six-pole Axial-radial Active Magnetic Bearing Based on Improved Linear Active Disturbance Rejection Optimized by Least Square Support Vector Machine
Vol. 106, 57-72, 2024
download: 66
Wideband Circularly Polarized Exponential Slot Antenna with Rectangular Island for X-Band Satellite Applications
Mostafa Mahmoud Rabie , Mohamed S. El-Gendy , Angie Reda El Damak , Fawzy Ibrahim and Hadia El-Hennawy
This paper introduces a compact, circularly polarized exponential slot antenna with a rectangular island. The concept of the proposed antenna is similar to that of fractal antennas as it is based on designing an asymmetric slot shape with an increased electrical length within a small area, thanks to the exponential path. The obtained results are as follows. The reflection-coefficient |S11| of the proposed antenna covers the band from 5.5 GHz to 9 GHz. The proposed antenna is circularly polarized with an axial-ratio (AR) bandwidth that extends from 6.87 GHz to 8.9 GHz. It offers simultaneous dual circular polarizations (RHCP and LHCP). The gain of the proposed antenna varies between 4.2 dBic and 5.4 dBic. The efficiency reaches 94%. The size of the antenna is compact making it suitable for CubeSats with limited surface area. The proposed antenna intended application is X-band Earth-Space satellite communication. The proposed antenna can be employed for both the X-band satellite downlink (from 7.25 GHz to 7.75 GHz) and uplink (from 7.9 GHz to 8.4 GHz) frequency bands. Additionally, the antenna can be utilized in military applications, and RFID tag tracking-equipment. A prototype of the proposed antenna has been fabricated and then measured using Vector-Network-Analyzer (VNA) and inside an anechoic chamber. The measurement results of the proposed antenna are in excellent match with the simulated ones.
Wideband Circularly Polarized Exponential Slot Antenna with Rectangular Island for X-band Satellite Applications
Vol. 106, 39-55, 2024
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Study on Electromagnetic Performance of Permanent Magnet Rotor and Dual Stator Starter Generator for Electric Vehicle Range Extender
Mingling Gao , Zhenhai Yu , Wenjie Jiao , Wenjing Hu , Huihui Geng , Yixin Liu , Shiqiang Liu and Yishuo Liu
The flywheel-type dual-stator permanent magnet starter generator combines engine flywheel and starter generator rotor into a single unit, which has the advantages of high efficiency, high power density, and compact structure. This paper proposes a new type of dual-stator permanent magnet starter generator topology in which the two stators are concentric and share the same permanent magnet rotor. Equivalent magnetic circuit modeling of the inner stator's magnetic field, outer stator's magnetic field, and synthetic magnetic field using the equivalent magnetic circuit method list the system of flux equations and solve the main magnetic flux, leakage flux, and leakage coefficient, and the results show that the equivalent magnetic circuit method has smaller error and higher accuracy than the finite element method. The harmonic electric potential of the starter generator is modeled and analyzed. The permanent magnet rotor and inner and outer stator structures are optimized to obtain the optimal parameters, and the prototype is manufactured and tested. The optimized starter generator no-load induced electromotive force fundamental amplitude is improved. The induced electromotive force harmonic distortion rate is reduced, and the output performance of the whole generator is significantly improved.
Study on Electromagnetic Performance of Permanent Magnet Rotor and Dual Stator Starter Generator for Electric Vehicle Range Extender
Vol. 106, 17-38, 2024
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Negative Group Delay Prototype Filter Based on the Reciprocal Transfer Function of a Low-Pass Butterworth Filter Capped at Finite Out-of-Band Gain
Miodrag Kandic and Greg E. Bridges
A Negative Group Delay (NGD) prototype filter design based on the reciprocal transfer function of a low-pass Butterworth filter of a given order, is presented. The out-of-band gain of the prototype transfer function is capped at a finite constant value via multiplication by a transfer function of a low-pass Butterworth filter with 3 dB bandwidth that is wider than the reciprocal function bandwidth. Such synthesized transfer function exhibits maximal magnitude characteristic flatness within the 3 dB bandwidth (Butterworth-like property), while it also exhibits NGD and satisfies Kramers-Kronig relations (causal transfer function). The prototype design achieves an NGD-bandwidth product that in the upper asymptotic limit as the design order increases, is a linear function of out-of-band gain in decibels. This is an improvement compared with previously reported cascaded first-order and second-order designs, which have NGD-bandwidth functional dependency of out-of-band gain in decibels to the power of 1/2 and 3/4, respectively. It is shown that the transfer function of the corresponding design transformed to a non-zero center frequency can be exactly implemented with a Sallen-Key topology employing parallel resonators, or approximately implemented with an all-passive ladder topology. An in-band magnitude/phase distortion metric is applied to the prototype designs, evaluated for Gaussian and sinc pulse input waveforms, and compared with values obtained for a well-known commonly used medium. It is also shown that when the specified bandwidth corresponds to the entire bandwidth over which the group delay characteristic is negative, the magnitude characteristic variation approximately equals half the out-of-band gain value in decibels. Therefore, for any NGD design with large out-of-band gain (typically higher than 6 dB), using the entire bandwidth where group delay is negative can result in strong levels of distortion and should be checked for applied waveforms.
Negative Group Delay Prototype Filter Based on the Reciprocal Transfer Function of a Low-pass Butterworth Filter Capped at Finite Out-of-band Gain
Vol. 106, 1-16, 2024
download: 64
Research on the Grounding Grid Electrical Impedance Imaging Algorithm Based on Improved Tikhonov and Lp Regularization
Lele He , Lei Yang , Xiaoheng Yan , Weihua Chen and Shangfei Huang
In this paper, an improved hybrid regularized grounded network imaging algorithm (ITR-Lp) combining Tikhonov regularization and Lp regularization is proposed; through the improvement of the filtering function, the correction of small magnitude for large singular values and increasing magnitude of correction with decreasing singular values for small singular values is implemented for the improvement of the convergence of the solution. The proposed algorithm constructs a regularization matrix to achieve selective correction of singular values and improve the convergence of the solution, while Lp regularization is used to enhance the sparsity of the solution and improve the boundary contrast. the effect of node distribution on convergence is investigated, and finally the ITR-Lp algorithm is validated by simulation and experiment. The results show that the ITR-Lp algorithm proposed in this paper achieves the lowest resistivity relative errors of 0.1695 and 0.1089 for resistive networks with 1 corrosion and 2 corrosions, respectively. The method has good convergence and boundary contrast, which effectively improves the pathology of the inverse problem of imaging the electrical impedance tomography of grounding grid.
Research on the Grounding Grid Electrical Impedance Imaging Algorithm Based on Improved Tikhonov and Lp Regularization