A New Concept for High Power RF Coupling Between Waveguides and Resonant RF Cavities
Microwave engineering of high average-power (hundreds of kilowatts) devices often involves a transition from a waveguide to a device, typically a resonant cavity. This is a basic operation, which finds use in various application areas of significance to science and industry. At relatively low frequencies, L-band and below, it is convenient, sometimes essential, to couple the power between the waveguide and the cavity through a coaxial antenna, forming a power coupler. Power flow to the cavity in the fundamental mode leads to a Fundamental Power Coupler (FPC). High-order mode power generated in the cavity by a particle beam leads to a high-order mode power damper. Coupling a cryogenic device, such as a superconducting cavity to a room temperature power source (or damp) leads to additional constraints and challenges. We propose a new approach to this problem, wherein the coax line element is operated in a TE11 mode rather than the conventional TEM mode. We will show that this method leads to a significant increase in the power handling capability of the coupler as well as a few other advantages. We describe the mode converter from the waveguide to the TE11 coax line, outline the characteristics and performance limits of the coupler and provide a detailed worked out example in the challenging area of coupling to a superconducting accelerator cavity.