Vol. 63

Front:[PDF file] Back:[PDF file]
Latest Volume
All Volumes
All Issues
2015-09-08

Mitigation of Communication Blackout During Re-Entry Using Static Magnetic Field

By Neha Mehra, Rajesh Kumar Singh, and Subhash Chandra Bera
Progress In Electromagnetics Research B, Vol. 63, 161-172, 2015
doi:10.2528/PIERB15070107

Abstract

During re-entry into earth's atmosphere, a spacecraft suffers from loss of communication with the ground control station, known as communication blackout, due to formation of plasma around the re-entry spacecraft. This paper presents the theory and analysis of the communication blackout and its mitigation using static magnetic field method. The interaction between electromagnetic waves and plasma in presence as well as absence of magnetic field is described to determine the effects of plasma sheath on the spacecraft re-entering into the atmosphere. An analysis is done to determine the effectiveness of this mitigation technique for a typical re-entry spacecraft and the strength of magnetic field required to establish the communication link between the re-entry spacecraft and the ground station is obtained.

Citation


Neha Mehra, Rajesh Kumar Singh, and Subhash Chandra Bera, "Mitigation of Communication Blackout During Re-Entry Using Static Magnetic Field," Progress In Electromagnetics Research B, Vol. 63, 161-172, 2015.
doi:10.2528/PIERB15070107
http://www.jpier.org/PIERB/pier.php?paper=15070107

References


    1. Rybak, J. and R. J. Churchill, "Progress in reentry communications," IEEE Transactions on Aerospace and Electronic Systems, Vol. 7, 879-894, Sep. 1971.
    doi:10.1109/TAES.1971.310328

    2. Anderson, N. and G. R. Walsh, "The formation of a plasma sheath," International Journal of Electronics, Vol. 31, No. 3, 217-222, 1971.
    doi:10.1080/00207217108938218

    3. Shi, L., B. Guo, Y. Liu, and J. Li, "Characteristic of plasma sheath channel and its effect on communication," Progress In Electromagnetics Research, Vol. 123, 321-336, 2012.
    doi:10.2528/PIER11110201

    4. Takahashi, Y., K. Yamada, and T. Abe, "Prediction performance of blackout and plasma attenuation in atmospheric reentry demonstrator mission," Journal of Spacecraft and Rockets, Vol. 51, No. 6, 1954-1964, 2014.
    doi:10.2514/1.A32880

    5. Bachynski, M., "Electromagnetic wave penetration of reentry plasma sheaths," Journal of Research of the National Bureau of Standards Section D-radio Science, Vol. 69, No. 2, 147-154, 1965.
    doi:10.6028/jres.069D.023

    6. Gillman, E. D., J. E. Foster, and I. M. Blankson, "Review of leading approaches for mitigating hypersonic vehicle communications blackout and a method of ceramic particulate injection via cathode spot arcs for blackout mitigation,", NASA,Washington DC, NASA/TM-2010-216220, 2010.

    7. Hartunian, R. A., G. E. Stewart, T. J. Curtiss, S. D. Fergason, R. W. Seibold, and P. Shome, "Implications and mitigation of radio frequency blackout during reentry of reusable launch vehicles," AIAA Paper, Vol. 6633, 2007.

    8. Starkey, R. P., "Hypersonic vehicle telemetry blackout analysis," Journal of Spacecraft and Rockets, Vol. 52, No. 2, 426-438, 2015.
    doi:10.2514/1.A32051

    9. Kundrapu, M., J. Loverich, K. Beckwith, P. Stoltz, A. Shashurin, and M. Keidar, "Modeling radio communication blackout and blackout mitigation in hypersonic vehicles," Journal of Spacecraft and Rockets, Vol. 52, No. 3, 853-862, 2015.
    doi:10.2514/1.A33122

    10. Baldwin, K., O. Bassett, E. Hawthorne, and E. Langberg, "Telecommunications during re-entry," Planetary and Space Science, Vol. 6, 207-218, 1961.
    doi:10.1016/0032-0633(61)90021-6

    11. Weihs, H., J. Longo, and J. Turner, "The sharp edge flight experiment SHEFEX II, a mission overview and status," Proceedings of the 15th AIAA International Space Planes and Hypersonic Systems and Technologies Conference, 2008.

    12. Schroeder, L. C. and N. D. Akey, "Material injection alleviation during the ram c-iii flight," Journal of Spacecraft and Rockets, Vol. 10, 170-174, 1973.
    doi:10.2514/3.61866

    13. Gao, X. and B. Jiang, "A matching approach to communicate through the plasma sheath surrounding a hypersonic vehicle," Journal of Applied Physics, Vol. 117, No. 23, 233301, 2015.
    doi:10.1063/1.4921751

    14. Hodara, H., "The use of magnetic fields in the elimination of the re-entry radio blackout," Proceedings of the IRE, Vol. 49, No. 12, 1825-1830, 1961.
    doi:10.1109/JRPROC.1961.287709

    15. Samaddar, S., "Effect of using a dc magnetic field in a re-entry plasma sheath," International Journal of Electronics, Vol. 22, No. 2, 133-151, 1967.
    doi:10.1080/00207216708937950

    16. Starkey, R., "Electromagnetic wave/magnetoactive plasma sheath interaction for hypersonic vehicle telemetry blackout analysis," 34th AIAA Plasmadynamics and Lasers Conference, 2003.

    17. Tang, D., A. Sun, X. Qiu, and P. K. Chu, "Interaction of electromagnetic waves with a magnetized nonuniform plasma slab," IEEE Transactions on Plasma Science, Vol. 31, No. 3, 405-410, 2003.
    doi:10.1109/TPS.2003.811648

    18. Kim, M., M. Keidar, and I. D. Boyd, "Analysis of an electromagnetic mitigation scheme for reentry telemetry through plasma," Journal of Spacecraft and Rockets, Vol. 45, No. 6, 1223-1229, 2008.
    doi:10.2514/1.37395

    19. Kim, M., I. D. Boyd, and M. Keidar, "Modeling of electromagnetic manipulation of plasmas for communication during reentry flight," Journal of Spacecraft and Rockets, Vol. 47, No. 1, 29-35, 2010.
    doi:10.2514/1.45525

    20. Xing, X., Q. Zhao, and L. Zheng, "Theoretical and experimental studies of magnetic field on electromagnetic wave propagation in plasma," Progress In Electromagnetics Research M, Vol. 30, 129-139, 2013.
    doi:10.2528/PIERM13030607

    21. Stenzel, R. and J. Urrutia, "A new method for removing the blackout problem on reentry vehicles," Journal of Applied Physics, Vol. 113, No. 10, 103303, 2013.
    doi:10.1063/1.4795148

    22. Lankford, D. W., "A study of electron collision frequency in air mixtures and turbulent boundary,", Tech. Rep., DTIC Document, 1972.

    23. LyTec, L., R. S. Ruoff, V. Chandrasekhar, and D. A. Dikin, "Flightweight magnets for space application using carbon nanotubes," 41st Aerospace Sciences Meeting and Exhibit, 2003.