Vol. 65

Front:[PDF file] Back:[PDF file]
Latest Volume
All Volumes
All Issues

Design of Compact Double-Layer Microwave Absorber for X-Ku Bands Using Genetic Algorithm

By Hesham Abd El-Hakim, Korany Mahmoud, and Abdelmonem Abdelaziz
Progress In Electromagnetics Research B, Vol. 65, 157-168, 2016


In this paper, an efficient lightweight double-layer absorber with impedance-matching structure at X-Ku bands was designed, optimized and implemented. First, genetic algorithm (GA) was considered to optimize the thicknesses and material properties for better absorption of the incident electromagnetic wave and reduction of radar cross section (RCS). Next, with the aid of the obtained dielectric and magnetic properties, the microwave absorber was fabricated from magnetodielectric composite materials besides a natural rubber. Finally, the analytical and numerical results were compared with the measurements to check the validity of the design. Experiments showed that the reflection coefficient for each layer backed with a metallic sheet was insufficient; however, for the double layer absorber, the reflectivity measurement values reached up to -28 dB in the case of normal incidence and -17 dB for oblique incidence.


Hesham Abd El-Hakim, Korany Mahmoud, and Abdelmonem Abdelaziz, "Design of Compact Double-Layer Microwave Absorber for X-Ku Bands Using Genetic Algorithm," Progress In Electromagnetics Research B, Vol. 65, 157-168, 2016.


    1. Huang, Y., Y. Feng, and T. Jiang, "Electromagnetic cloaking by layered structure of homogeneous isotropic materials," Optics Express, Vol. 15, No. 18, 11133-11141, 2007.

    2. Yong, B.-Z. and T.-J. Cui, "Three-dimensional axisymmetric invisibility cloaks with arbitrary shapes in layered-medium background," Progress In Electromagnetics Research B, Vol. 27, 151-163, 2011.

    3. Perini, J. and L. S. Cohen, "Design of broad-band radar-absorbing materials for large angles of incidence," IEEE Transactions on Electromagnetic Compatibility, Vol. 35, No. 2, 223-230, 1993.

    4. Attaf, B., Advances in Composite Materials - Ecodesign and Analysis, Chapter 13, 291-316, InTech, 2011.

    5. Gong, R., Y. He, X. Li, C. Liu, and X. Wang, "Study on absorption and mechanical properties of rubber sheet absorbers," Materials Science-Poland, Vol. 25, No. 4, 1001-1010, 2007.

    6. Anyong, Q., "Design of thin wideband planar absorber using dynamic differential evolution and real electromagnetic composite materials," IEEE International Symposium, Antennas and Propagation (APSURSI), 2912-2915, Spokane, WA, July 3-8, 2011.

    7. Liang, W. M., Z. S. Jun, L. J. Qi, L. Wei, L. X. Mei, and X. W. Liang, "FSS design research for improving the wide-band stealth performance of radar absorbing materials," IEEE Proceeding, International Work Shop, Metamaterials (Meta), 1-4, Nanjing, Oct. 2012.

    8. Ramesh, C., D. Singh, and N. K. Agarwal, "Implementation of multilayer ferrite radar absorbing coating with genetic algorithm for radar cross-section reduction at X-band," Indian Journal of Radio and Space Physics, Vol. 36, No. 2, 145-152, 2007.

    9. Micheli, D., R. Pastore, C. Apollo, M. Marchetti, G. Gradoni, V. M. Primiani, and F. Moglie, "Broadband electromagnetic absorbers using carbon nanostructure-based composites," IEEE Transactions on Microwave Theory and Techniques, Vol. 59, No. 10, 2633-2646, 2011.

    10. Li, M., W. Zhou, H. B. Liu, and X. Q. Shen, "Electromagnetic and microwave absorption of nanocrystalline alloy Fe0.2 (Co0.2Ni0.8)0.8 and nanocomposite SrFe12O19/Ni0.5Zn0.5Fe2O4 microfibers," Advanced Materials Research, Vol. 1035, No. 1033, 355-360, 2014.

    11. Qian, S. X., L. H. Bo, W. Zhou, Q. X. Ye, J. M. Xiang, and Y. X. Chun, "Microwave absorption properties of a double-layer absorber based on nanocomposite BaFe12O19/α-Fe and nanocrystalline α-Fe microfibers," Advanced Materials Research, Vol. 1035, 339-343, 2014.

    12. Sukanta Das, G. C. N., S. K. Sahu, P. C. Routray, A. K. Roy, and H. Baskey, "Microwave absorption properties of double-layer RADAR absorbing materials based on doped Barium Hexaferrite/TiO2/conducting carbon black," Journal of Engineering, Vol. 2014, 1-5, 2014.

    13. Sukanta Das, G. C. N., S. K. Sahu, P. C. Routray, A. K. Roy, and H. Baskey, "Microwave absorption properties of double-layer composites using CoZn/NiZn/MnZn-ferrite and titanium dioxide," Journal of Magnetism and Magnetic Materials, Vol. 377, 111-116, 2014.

    14. John, L. W., "Broadband magnetic microwave absorbers: Fundamental limitations," IEEE Transactions on Magnetics, Vol. 29, No. 6, 4209-4214, 1993.

    15. Knott, E. F., J. F. Shaffer, and M. T. Tuley, Radar Cross Section, Artech House, London, 1993.

    16. Ghodgaonkar, D. K., V. V. Varadan, and V. K. Varadan, "Free-space measurement of complex permittivity and complex permeability of magnetic materials at microwave frequencies," IEEE Transactions on Instrumentation and Measurement, Vol. 59, No. 2, 387-394, 1990.

    17. Marina, Y. K., J. L. Drewniak, R. E. DuBroff, K. N. Rozanov, and B. Archambeault, "Modeling of shielding composite materials and structures for microwave frequencies," Progress In Electromagnetics Research B, Vol. 15, 197-215, 2009.

    18. Dharmendra, S., A. Kumar, S. Meena, and V. Agarwala, "Analysis of frequency selective surfaces for radar absorbing materials," Progress In Electromagnetics Research B, Vol. 38, 297-314, 2012.

    19. Haupt, R. L., "An introduction to genetic algorithms for electromagnetics," IEEE Transactions on Antennas and Propagation Magazine, Vol. 37, No. 2, 7-15, 1995.

    20. Morari, C., I. Balan, J. Pintea, E. Chitanu, and I. Iordache, "Electrical conductivity and electromagnetic shielding effectiveness of silicone rubber filled with ferrite and graphite powders," Progress In Electromagnetics Research M, Vol. 21, 93-104, 2011.

    21. Nina, H., A. Vesel, V. Ivanovskiand, and M. K. Gunde, "Electrical conductivity of carbon black pigments," Dyes and Pigments, Vol. 95, No. 1, 1-7, Elsevier, 2012.

    22. Queffelec, P., G. Philppe, J. Gieraltowski, and J. Loaec, "A microstrip device for the broad band simultaneous measurement of complex permeability and permittivity," IEEE Transactions on Magnetics, Vol. 30, No. 2, 224-231, 1994.

    23. William, W. B., "Automatic measurement of complex dielectric constant and permeability at microwave frequencies," IEEE Proceeding, Vol. 62, No. 1, 33-36, 1974.

    24. Dib, N. I., M. Asi, and A. Sabbah, "On the optimal design of multilayer microwave absorbers," Progress In Electromagnetics Research C, Vol. 13, 171-185, 2010.

    25. Roy, S., S. D. Roy, J. Tewary, A. Mahanti, and G. K. Mahanti, "Particle swarm optimization for optimal design of broadband multilayer microwave absorber for wide angle of incidence," Progress In Electromagnetics Research B, Vol. 62, 121-135, 2015.