A hybrid technique for the analysis of pyramidal and conical horn antennas is presented based on an exact vector Dirichlet to Neumann (DtN) mapping mathematical formalism. The transition from the feeding waveguide to the radiating aperture is analyzed by using the mode matching technique (MMT) employing a stepped-waveguide approach. Love's field equivalence principle is employed for the denition of equivalent electric and magnetic current densities at the horn aperture. Explicitly, these currents are located at a plane parallel to the aperture but slightly shifted inwards in order to implement an offset Moment Method for their discretization, which is free of integral singularities. The unbounded area field generated by these sources is enforced to be continuous with the internal mode matching field by strictly following DtN principles. Besides that, this procedure mimics a By-moment approach ensuring the decoupling of the required number of modes from that of the sources discretization degrees of freedom. Finally, the implemented hybrid method is validated against published experimental and numerical results for a number of pyramidal and conical horn antennas including various corrugated geometries.
1. Deguchi, H., T. Okada, M. Tsuji, and H. Shigesawa, "Multimode horn with optimum gain within circular area," Electronics and Communications in Japan, Part 1, Vol. 89, No. 2, 12-20, 2006. doi:10.1002/ecja.20246
2. Lier, E. and A. Kishk, "A new class of dielectric-loaded hybridmode horn antennas with selective gain: Design and analysis by single mode model and method of moments," IEEE Trans. on Antennas and Propagation, Vol. 53, No. 1, 125-138, 2005. doi:10.1109/TAP.2004.840504
3. Encinar, J. A. and J. M. Rebollar, "A hybrid technique for analyzing corrugated and noncorrugated rectangular horns," IEEE Trans. on Antennas and Propagation, Vol. 34, No. 8, 961-968, 1986. doi:10.1109/TAP.1986.1143930
4. Jull, E. V., "Reflection from the aperture of a long E-plane sectorial horn," IEEE Trans. on Antennas and Propagation, Vol. 20, No. 1, 61-68, 1972. doi:10.1109/TAP.1972.1140137
5. Liu, K., C. A. Balanis, C. R. Birtcher, and G. C. Barber, "Analysis of pyramidal horn antennas using moment methods," IEEE Trans. on Antennas and Propagation, Vol. 41, No. 10, 1379-1389, 1993. doi:10.1109/8.247778
6. Wriedt, T., K. H. Wolff, F. Arndt, and U. Tucholke, "Rigorous hybrid field theoretic design of stepped rectangular waveguide mode converters," IEEE Trans. on Antennas and Propagation, Vol. 41, No. 37, 780-790, 1989. doi:10.1109/8.29365
7. Bhattacharyya, A. K. and G. Z. Rollins, "Accurate radiation and impedance characteristics of horn antennas-A moment-method model ," IEEE Trans. on Antennas and Propagation, Vol. 44, No. 4, 523-531, 1996. doi:10.1109/8.489304
8. Orfanidis, A. P., G. A. Kyriacou, and J. N. Sahalos, "A mode matching technique for the study of cylindrical and coaxial waveguide discontinuities based on a closed form coupling integrals ," IEEE Trans. on Microwave Theory and Techniques, Vol. 48, 880-883, 2000. doi:10.1109/22.841894
9. Diamantis, S. G., A. P. Orfanidis, G. A. Kyriacou, and J. N. Sahalos, "Hybrid mode matching and auxiliary sources technique for horn antenna analysis," Microwave and Optical Technology Letters, Vol. 49, No. 3, 734-739, 2007. doi:10.1002/mop.22233
10. Diamantis, S. G., A. P. Orfanidis, and G. A. Kyriacou, "Conical horn antennas employing an offset moment method and mode matching technique," IEEE Trans. on Magnetics, Vol. 45, No. 3, 1092-1095, 2009. doi:10.1109/TMAG.2009.2012629
16. Allilomes, P. C. and G. A. Kyriacou, "A nonlinear finite-element leaky-waveguide solver," IEEE Trans. on Microwave Theory and Techniques, Vol. 55, No. 7, 1496-1510, 2007. doi:10.1109/TMTT.2007.900306
17. Teniente, J., R. Gonzalo, and C. del Ro, "Ultra-wide band corrugated profiled horn antenna design," IEEE Microwave Wireless Components Letters, Vol. 12, No. 1, 20-21, 2002. doi:10.1109/7260.975722
18. Harrington, R. F., Field Computation by Moment Methods, IEEE Press, Piscataway, NJ, 1993.
19. Barybin, A. A., "Modal expansions and orthogonal complements in the theory of complex media waveguide excitation by external sources for isotropic, anisotropic, and bianisotropic media ," Progress In Electromagnetics Research, Vol. 19, 241-300, 1998. doi:10.2528/PIER97120800
20. Clarricoats, P. J. B. and A. D. Olver, Corrugated Horns for Microwave Antennas, IEE Electromagnetics Waves Series 18, Peter Peregrinus, 1984.
21. Collin, R. E., "Field Theory of Guided Waves," IEEE Press, 1990.
22. Nye, J. F. and W. Liang, "Theory and measurement of the field of a pyramidal horn," IEEE Trans. on Antennas Propagation, Vol. 44, 1488-1498, 1996. doi:10.1109/8.542074
23. Mayhew-Ridgers, G., J. W. Odendaal, and J. Joubert, "Improved diffraction model and numerical validation for horn antenna gain calculations," International Journal of RF and Microwave Computer-Aided Engineering, Vol. 19, No. 6, 701-711, 2009. doi:10.1002/mmce.20394
24. Catedra, M. F., "A comparison between two kinds of equivalent currents to analyze conducting bodies with apertures using moment methods: Application to horns with symmetry of revolution ," IEEE Trans. on Antennas and Propagation, Vol. 35, No. 7, 782-789, 1987. doi:10.1109/TAP.1987.1144179
25. Stutzman, W., Antenna Theory and Design, John Wiley, 1981.
26. Kishk, A. A. and C.-S. Lim, "Comparative analysis between conical and Gaussian profiled horn antennas," Progress In Electromagnetics Research, Vol. 38, 147-166, 2002. doi:10.2528/PIER02052406
27. Zhang, T.-L., Z.-H. Yan, F. Fan, and B. Li, "Design of a Ku-band compact corrugated horn with high Gaussian beam efficiency," Journal of Electromagnetic Waves and Applications, Vol. 25, No. 1, 123-129, 2011. doi:10.1163/156939311793898297