Encoding a large number of bits within a narrow band is an important factor in the development of chipless RFID tags. A novel 8 bit chipless RFID tag with a limited bandwidth of 650 MHz is proposed here. The proposed tag comprises a multi-resonating circuit with eight E-shaped microstrip resonators in the frequency band of 3.12 to 3.77 GHz and two cross-polarized transmitting and receiving monopole antennas. The unique feature of the proposed tag is that a different set of frequencies can be derived by changing a single parameter of the structure. The prototype of the tag is fabricated on a substrate C-MET LK4.3 of dielectric constant 4.3 and loss tangent 0.0018. Different tag combinations are designed and tested using bistatic measurement setup. Measurement results on realized prototypes are provided to ensure the reliability of the proposed design.
"High Bit Encoding Chipless RFID Tag Using Multiple E Shaped Microstrip Resonators," Progress In Electromagnetics Research B,
Vol. 61, 185-196, 2014. doi:10.2528/PIERB14081301
2. Kraiser, U. and W. Steinhagen, "A low-power transponder IC for high-performance identification systems," IEEE J. Solid-State Circuits, Vol. 30, No. 3, 306-310, Mar. 1995. doi:10.1109/4.364446
3. Jalaly, I. and D. Robertson, "Capacitively-tuned split microstrip resonators for RFID barcodes," Eur. Microw. Conf., Vol. 2, 4-7, Paris, France, Oct. 4-6, 2005.
4. Tikhov, Y. and Y. H. Min, "RFID barcode and RFID barcode reading system," Patent No. US20070164121, Jul. 19, 2007.
5. McVay, J., A. Hoorfar, and N. Engheta, "Theory and experiments on Peano and Hilbert curve RFID tags," Proc. SPIE, Vol. 6248, No. 1, 624808-1-624808-10, 2006.
6. Balbin, I., S. Preradovic, N. C. Karmakar, and G. F. Swiegers, "Multi-resonator-based chipless RFID system for low-cost item tracking," IEEE Trans. Microwave Theory Tech., Vol. 57, 1411-1419, 2009.
7. Jang, H.-S., W.-G. Lim, K.-S. Oh, S.-M. Moon, and J.-W. Yu, "Design of low-cost chipless system using printable chipless tag with electromagnetic code," IEEE Microw. Wirel. Components Lett., Vol. 20, No. 11, 640-642, 2010. doi:10.1109/LMWC.2010.2073692
8. Nijas, C. M., R. Dinesh, U. Deepak, A. Rasheed, S. Mridula, K. Vasudevan, and P. Mohanan, "Chipless RFID tag using multiple microstrip open stub resonators," IEEE Trans. Antennas Propag., Vol. 60, No. 9, 4429-4432, 2012. doi:10.1109/TAP.2012.2207081
9. Kalansuriya, P., N. C. Karmakar, and E. Viterbo, "On the detection of frequency-spectra-based chipless RFID using UWB impulsed interrogation," IEEE Trans. Microwave Theory Tech., Vol. 60, No. 12, 4187-4197, 2013. doi:10.1109/TMTT.2012.2222920
10. Sumi, M., C. M. Nijas, R. Dinesh, and S. Mridula, "Chipless RFID tag based on spurline resonators," Proceedings of National Symposium on Microwave Antennas and Propagation, 165-168, Cochin, 2012.
11. Sumi, M., R. Dinesh, C. M. Nijas, S. Mridula, and P. Mohanan, "Frequency coded chipless RFID tag using spurline resonators," Radio Eng., Vol. 24, No. 4, 203-208, 2014.
12. Casula, G. A., G. Montisci, P. Maxia, and G. A. Mazzarella, "A narrowband chipless multiresonator tag for UHF RFID," Journal of Electromagnetic Waves and Applications, Vol. 28, No. 2, 214-227, 2014. doi:10.1080/09205071.2013.862187
13. Vena, A., E. Perret, and S. Tedjini, "High capacity chipless RFID tag insensitive to the polarization," IEEE Trans. Antennas Propag., Vol. 60, No. 10, 4509-4515, 2012. doi:10.1109/TAP.2012.2207347
14. Islam, M. A., Y. Yap, N. Karmakar, and A. K. M. Azad, "Orientation independent compact chipless RFID tag," IEEE 2012 International Conference on RFID-Technologies and Applications, 137-141, Nov. 5-7, 2012.
15. Nair, R. S., E. Perret, S. Tedjini, and T. Baron, "A group-delay-based chipless RFID humidity tag sensor using silicon nanowires," IEEE Antennas Wireless Propagation Letters, Vol. 12, 729-732, 2013. doi:10.1109/LAWP.2013.2270929
16. Nijas, C. M., U. Deepak, P. V. Vinesh, R. Sujith, S.Mridula, K. Vasudevan, and P. Mohanan, "Low-cost multiple-bit encoded chipless RFID tag using stepped impedance resonator," IEEE Trans. Antennas Propag., Vol. 62, No. 9, 4762-4770, Sep. 2014. doi:10.1109/TAP.2014.2330586
17. Ratheesh, R., K. S. Jacob, K. P. Murali, A. Jain, and P. R. Hannurkar, "Ceramic filler, method of preparing ceramic filler and applications as resonator and laminate thereof,", US Patent 14228342, Mar. 2014.
18. Bahl, I. J. and P. Bhartia, Microstrip Antennas, Artech House, Norwood, MA, 1980.
19. Preradovic, S., I. Balbin, N. C. Karmakar, and G. Swiegers, "A novel chipless RFID system based on planar multi-resonators for barcode replacement," Proceedings of IEEE International Conference on RFID, 289-296, Las Vegas, 2008.
20. Karmakar, N. C. and G. F. Swiegers, "Multiresonator-based chipless RFID system for low-cost item tracking," IEEE Trans. Microwave Theory Tech., Vol. 57, No. 5, 1411-1419, May 2009. doi:10.1109/TMTT.2009.2017323
21. Girbau, D., J. Lorenzo, A. L´azaro, C. Ferrater, and R. Villarino, "Frequency-coded chipless RFID tag based on dual-band resonators," IEEE Antennas Wireless Propagation Letters, Vol. 11, 126-128, 2012. doi:10.1109/LAWP.2012.2185032