Vol. 78
Latest Volume
All Volumes
PIERB 106 [2024] PIERB 105 [2024] PIERB 104 [2024] PIERB 103 [2023] PIERB 102 [2023] PIERB 101 [2023] PIERB 100 [2023] PIERB 99 [2023] PIERB 98 [2023] PIERB 97 [2022] PIERB 96 [2022] PIERB 95 [2022] PIERB 94 [2021] PIERB 93 [2021] PIERB 92 [2021] PIERB 91 [2021] PIERB 90 [2021] PIERB 89 [2020] PIERB 88 [2020] PIERB 87 [2020] PIERB 86 [2020] PIERB 85 [2019] PIERB 84 [2019] PIERB 83 [2019] PIERB 82 [2018] PIERB 81 [2018] PIERB 80 [2018] PIERB 79 [2017] PIERB 78 [2017] PIERB 77 [2017] PIERB 76 [2017] PIERB 75 [2017] PIERB 74 [2017] PIERB 73 [2017] PIERB 72 [2017] PIERB 71 [2016] PIERB 70 [2016] PIERB 69 [2016] PIERB 68 [2016] PIERB 67 [2016] PIERB 66 [2016] PIERB 65 [2016] PIERB 64 [2015] PIERB 63 [2015] PIERB 62 [2015] PIERB 61 [2014] PIERB 60 [2014] PIERB 59 [2014] PIERB 58 [2014] PIERB 57 [2014] PIERB 56 [2013] PIERB 55 [2013] PIERB 54 [2013] PIERB 53 [2013] PIERB 52 [2013] PIERB 51 [2013] PIERB 50 [2013] PIERB 49 [2013] PIERB 48 [2013] PIERB 47 [2013] PIERB 46 [2013] PIERB 45 [2012] PIERB 44 [2012] PIERB 43 [2012] PIERB 42 [2012] PIERB 41 [2012] PIERB 40 [2012] PIERB 39 [2012] PIERB 38 [2012] PIERB 37 [2012] PIERB 36 [2012] PIERB 35 [2011] PIERB 34 [2011] PIERB 33 [2011] PIERB 32 [2011] PIERB 31 [2011] PIERB 30 [2011] PIERB 29 [2011] PIERB 28 [2011] PIERB 27 [2011] PIERB 26 [2010] PIERB 25 [2010] PIERB 24 [2010] PIERB 23 [2010] PIERB 22 [2010] PIERB 21 [2010] PIERB 20 [2010] PIERB 19 [2010] PIERB 18 [2009] PIERB 17 [2009] PIERB 16 [2009] PIERB 15 [2009] PIERB 14 [2009] PIERB 13 [2009] PIERB 12 [2009] PIERB 11 [2009] PIERB 10 [2008] PIERB 9 [2008] PIERB 8 [2008] PIERB 7 [2008] PIERB 6 [2008] PIERB 5 [2008] PIERB 4 [2008] PIERB 3 [2008] PIERB 2 [2008] PIERB 1 [2008]
2017-10-20
A Large and Quick Induction Field Scanner for Examining the Interior of Extended Objects OR Humans
By
Progress In Electromagnetics Research B, Vol. 78, 155-173, 2017
Abstract
This study describes the techniques and signal properties of a large, powerful, and linear-scanning 1.5 MHz induction field scanner. The mechanical system is capable of quickly reading the volume of relative large objects, e.g., a test person. The general approach mirrors Magnetic Induction Tomography (MIT), but the details differ considerably from currently-described MIT systems: the setup is asymmetrical, and it operates in gradiometric modalities, either with coaxial excitation with destructive interference or with a single excitation loop and tilted receivers. Following this approach, the primary signals were almost completely nulled, and test objects' real or imaginary imprint was obtained directly. The coaxial gradiometer appeared advantageous: exposure to strong fields was reduced due to destructive interference. Meanwhile, the signals included enhanced components at higher spatial frequencies, thereby obtaining a gradually improved capability for localization. For robust signals, the excitation field can be powered towards the rated limits of human exposure to time-varying magnetic fields. Repeated measurements assessed the important signal integrity, which is affected by the scanner´s imperfections, particularly any motions or respiratory changes in living beings during or between repeated scans. The currently achieved and overall figure of merit for artifacts was 58 dB for inanimate test objects and 44 dB for a test person. Both numbers should be understood as worst case levels: a repeated scan with intermediate breathing and drift/dislocations requires 50 seconds, whereas a single measurement (with respiratory arrest) takes only about 5 seconds.
Citation
Martin Klein, and Dirk Rueter, "A Large and Quick Induction Field Scanner for Examining the Interior of Extended Objects OR Humans," Progress In Electromagnetics Research B, Vol. 78, 155-173, 2017.
doi:10.2528/PIERB17080702
References

1. Wei, H. and M. Soleimani, "Electromagnetic tomography for medical and industrial applications: Challenges and opportunities [Point of view]," Proceedings of the IEEE, Vol. 101, No. 3, 559-565, 2013.
doi:10.1109/JPROC.2012.2237072

2. Dekdouk, B., C. Ktistis, D. Armitage, and A. Peyton, "Absolute imaging of low conductivity material distributions using nonlinear reconstruction methods in magnetic induction tomography," Progress In Electromagnetics Research, Vol. 155, 1-18, 2016.
doi:10.2528/PIER15071705

3. Wei, H. and M. Soleimani, "Hardware and software design for a national instrument-based magnetic induction tomography system for prospective biomedical applications," Physiological Measurement, Vol. 33, No. 5, 863-879, 2012.
doi:10.1088/0967-3334/33/5/863

4. Scharfetter, H., S. Issa, and D. Gursoy, "Tracking of object movements for artefact suppression in Magnetic Induction Tomography (MIT)," Journal of Physics: Conference Series, Vol. 224, 012040, 2010.
doi:10.1088/1742-6596/224/1/012040

5. Zolgharni, M., H. Griffiths, and P. Ledger, "Frequency-difference MIT imaging of cerebral haemorrhage with a hemispherical coil array: Numerical modelling," Physiological Measurement, Vol. 31, No. 8, S111-S125, 2010.
doi:10.1088/0967-3334/31/8/S09

6. Gursoy, D. and H. Scharfetter, "Reconstruction artefacts in magnetic induction tomography due to patient’s movement during data acquisition," Physiological Measurement, Vol. 30, No. 6, S165-S174, 2009.
doi:10.1088/0967-3334/30/6/S11

7. Watson, S., R. Williams, W. Gough, and H. Griffiths, "A magnetic induction tomography system for samples with conductivities below 10 Sm−1," Measurement Science and Technology, Vol. 19, No. 4, 045501, 2008.
doi:10.1088/0957-0233/19/4/045501

8. Rosell-Ferrer, J., R. Merwa, P. Brunner, and H. Scharfetter, "A multifrequency magnetic induction tomography system using planar gradiometers: Data collection and calibration," Physiological Measurement, Vol. 27, No. 5, S271-S280, 2006.
doi:10.1088/0967-3334/27/5/S23

9. Vauhkonen, M., M. Hamsch, and C. Igney, "A measurement system and image reconstruction in magnetic induction tomography," Physiological Measurement, Vol. 29, No. 6, S445-S454, 2008.
doi:10.1088/0967-3334/29/6/S37

10. Wei, H. and M. Soleimani, "Three-dimensional magnetic induction tomography imaging using a matrix free krylov subspace inversion algorithm," Progress In Electromagnetics Research, Vol. 122, 29-45, 2012.
doi:10.2528/PIER11091513

11. Wei, H. and M. Soleimani, "Four dimensional reconstruction using magnetic induction tomography: Experimental study," Progress In Electromagnetics Research, Vol. 129, 17-32, 2012.
doi:10.2528/PIER12032403

12. Wei, H., L. Ma, and M. Soleimani, "Volumetric magnetic induction tomography," Measurement Science and Technology, Vol. 23, No. 5, 055401, 2012.
doi:10.1088/0957-0233/23/5/055401

13. Wei, H. and M. Soleimani, "Two-phase low conductivity flow imaging using magnetic induction tomography," Progress In Electromagnetics Research, Vol. 131, 99-115, 2012.
doi:10.2528/PIER12070615

14. Ma, L., H. Wei, and M. Soleimani, "Planar magnetic induction tomography for 3D near subsurface imaging," Progress In Electromagnetics Research, Vol. 138, 65-82, 2013.
doi:10.2528/PIER12110711

15. Wei, H. and M. Soleimani, "Theoretical and experimental evaluation of rotational magnetic induction tomography," IEEE Transactions on Instrumentation and Measurement, Vol. 61, No. 12, 3324-3331, 2012.
doi:10.1109/TIM.2012.2205516

16. Dekdouk, B., C. Ktistis, W. Yin, D. Armitage, and A. Peyton, "The application of a priori structural information based regularization in image reconstruction in magnetic induction tomography," Journal of Physics: Conference Series, Vol. 224, 012048, 2010.
doi:10.1088/1742-6596/224/1/012048

17. Ktistis, C., D. Armitage, and A. Peyton, "Calculation of the forward problem for absolute image reconstruction in MIT," Physiological Measurement, Vol. 29, No. 6, S455-S464, 2008.
doi:10.1088/0967-3334/29/6/S38

18. Rosell, J., R. Casanas, and H. Scharfetter, "Sensitivity maps and system requirements for magnetic induction tomography using a planar gradiometer," Physiological Measurement, Vol. 22, No. 1, 121-130, 2001.
doi:10.1088/0967-3334/22/1/316

19. Morris, A., H. Griffiths, and W. Gough, "A numerical model for magnetic induction tomographic measurements in biological tissues," Physiological Measurement, Vol. 22, No. 1, 113-119, 2001.
doi:10.1088/0967-3334/22/1/315

20. Scharfetter, H., P. Riu, M. Populo, and J. Rosell, "Sensitivity maps for low-contrast perturbations within conducting background in magnetic induction tomography," Physiological Measurement, Vol. 23, No. 1, 195-201, 2002.
doi:10.1088/0967-3334/23/1/320

21. International commission on non-ionizing radiation protection (ICNIRP): Guidelines for limiting exposure to time-varying electric, magnetic and electromagnetic fields (up to 300 GHz), published at www.icnirp.org.

22. IFA Report 3/2017, Grenzwerteliste 2017, , Sicherheit und Gesundheitsschutz am Arbeitsplatz, published at www.dguv.de.

23. HeidaryDastjerdi, M., D. Ruter, O. Kanoun, and J. Himmel, "Induktionsfelder mit vorteilhaften Topologien in der Magnetischen-Induktions-Tomografie," TM --- Technisches Messen, Vol. 80, No. 11, 2013.

24. Good, R., "Elliptic integrals, the forgotten functions," European Journal of Physics, Vol. 22, No. 2, 119-126, 2001.
doi:10.1088/0143-0807/22/2/303

25. Scharfetter, H., R. Merwa, and K. Pilz, "A new type of gradiometer for the receiving circuit of Magnetic Induction Tomography (MIT)," Physiological Measurement, Vol. 26, No. 2, S307-S318, 2005.
doi:10.1088/0967-3334/26/2/028

26. Hollaus, K. J., C. Magele, R. Merwa, and H. Scharfetter, "Fast calculation of the sensitivity matrix in magnetic induction tomography by tetrahedral edge finite elements and the reciprocity theorem," Physiological Measurement, Vol. 25, No. 1, 159-168, 2004.
doi:10.1088/0967-3334/25/1/023

27. Griffith, H., W. Gough, S. Watson, and R. J. Williams, "Residual capacitive coupling and the measurement of permittivity in magnetic induction tomography," Physiological Measurement, Vol. 28, No. 7, S301-311, 2007.
doi:10.1088/0967-3334/28/7/S23

28. Faes, T. J. C., H. A. van der Meij, J. C. de Munck, and R. M. Heethaar, "The electric resistivity of human tissues (100 Hz–10 MHz): A meta-analysis of review studies," Physiological Measurement, Vol. 20, No. 4, R1-10, 1999.
doi:10.1088/0967-3334/20/4/201

29. Rueter, D., H. P. Hauber, D. Droemann, P. Zabel, and S. Uhlig, "Low frequency ultrasound permeates the human lung in situ: A novel method for lung testing," Ultraschall in Med., Vol. 31, No. 1, 53-62, 2010.
doi:10.1055/s-0028-1109482

30. Gursoy, D. and H. Scharfetter, "Imaging artifacts in magnetic induction tomography caused by the structural incorrectness of the sensor model," Measurement Science and Technology, Vol. 22, No. 1, 1-10, 2011.
doi:10.1088/0957-0233/22/1/015502