This paper presents an analysis with the aim of characterizing the electromagnetic properties of an arbitrary linear, bianisotropic material inside a metallic waveguide. The result is that if the number of propagating modes is the same inside and outside the material under test, it is possible to determine the propagation constants of the modes inside the material by using scattering data from two samples with different lengths. Some information can also be obtained on the cross-sectional shape of the modes, but it remains an open question if this information can be used to characterize the material. The method is illustrated by numerical examples, determining the complex permittivity for lossy isotropic and anisotropic materials.
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