Direct Antenna Modulation (DAM) is explored recently in many wireless communication systems. In this paper, we explore the modulation process of electromagnetic signals in the antenna circuit design directly. The proposed antenna consists of two non-concentric elliptical patches for broadband applications to suit the spread spectrum applications. To perform a Differential Phase Shift Keying (DPSK) modulation, two identical antennas are fed by a two-branch microstrip line with a phase shift. Utilizing Computer Simulation Technology of Microwave Studio (CSTMWS) based on Finite Integral Technique (FIT), an optimization based-on numerical analysis is adopted for designing the transmission line configuration at the desired frequency bands. The other significant aspect that has been achieved in this research is reducing the patch size to be suitable for wearable devices. Therefore, a cylindrical substrate is utilized for bending the proposed antenna structure. The proposed antenna design shows a gain of 4.73 dBi and 2.5 dBi for the planar and folded antenna profile respectively. Two high-speed Positive Intrinsic Negative (PIN) diodes as switching elements of the RF signal are inserted between the identical antenna elements through a transmission line. Switch 1 (SW1) and switch 2 (SW2) are used to control the phase shift between the antenna elements by changing the switching state from (OFF-ON) and vice versa. The designed antenna is further investigated to realize the effects of radiation leakage from the antenna elements on the human body in the context of wearable applications. This study is conducted to the antenna performance when it is bent on a cylinder and compared to the flat case on four human body regions: arm, head, thigh, and chest. The proposed antenna based on PIN diodes is fabricated, measured, and tested. Using a 3D axis field strength meter, the proposed antenna system field strength is measured for different conditions at various locations of the human body. Finally, an excellent agreement is found between the obtained numerical results and measurements.
"Design of a Controllable Antenna Based on Embedded Differential PSK Modulation," Progress In Electromagnetics Research B,
Vol. 90, 43-62, 2021. doi:10.2528/PIERB20100106
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