According to a recent European Union report, lighting represents a significant share of electricity costs and the goal of reducing lighting power consumption by 20% demands the coupling of light-emitting diode (LED) lights with smart sensors and communication networks. This paper proposes the integration of these three elements into a smart streetlight, which is based on LEDs and a 24 GHz phased-array (Ph-A) front-end (FE) designed in low-cost 90nm complementary metal-oxide-semiconductor (CMOS) technology. The selected FE's architecture allows the implementation of transceivers as well as Doppler radar sensors. Furthermore the Ph-A technology is applied to the Doppler radar sensor in order to realize multi-lane road scanning and pedestrian detection. The radar sensor is used to make the streetlight eco-friendly by turning on the lamp only when necessary and to measure traffic parameters such as vehicle speed, type and direction. Intercommunication between the streetlights is based on a time-sharing mechanism and uses the same FE reconfigured as transceiver. Thanks to this functionality, the recorded traffic information is relayed through adjacent streetlights to a control center, and control commands and warnings can be spread through the network. The system requirements are derived assuming a simplified model of the operating scenario with a typical inter-light distance of 50 m and line-of-sight between lights. The radar range is around 60 m, which allows for continuous coverage from one streetlight to the adjacent one. Meanwhile, a communication range of 140 m is derived as a fundamental requirement for reliable communication between streetlight sensors because it allows bypassing of one node in case of failure. For the developed building blocks --- a low-noise amplifier, a variable-gain amplifier, a voltage-controlled oscillator and a vector modulation phase shifter --- the design methodology is presented together with measurement results. The system feasibility is proved by means of a system analysis based on the measured data from the implemented blocks and the state of the art performances for the missing parts. The requirements are fulfilled with a total power consumption of around 375 mW in Doppler radar sensor mode and around 190 mW in transceiver mode. To the authors' knowledge, this kind of integration is new and overcomes some limitations of the currently used solutions based on infrared sensors and low-throughput communications.
"Building Blocks for a 24 GHz
Phased-Array Front-End in CMOS Technology for Smart Streetlights," Progress In Electromagnetics Research B,
Vol. 61, 99-119, 2014. doi:10.2528/PIERB14061804
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