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3-D Metamaterial Based Terahertz Planoconcave Lenses for Linearly and Circularly Polarized Waves
Progress In Electromagnetics Research B, Vol. 98, 21-37, 2023
A three-dimensional negative index (NI) metamaterial (MTM) is realized at terahertz (THz) frequencies. The structure is comprised of orthogonally oriented cross-bars with arrows on each corner embedded in a dielectric cube. The proposed 3-D MTM is symmetric along all the principal axes and shows a polarization-insensitive, wide-incident-angle negative refractive index regime centered at 0.862 THz with an operational bandwidth of 0.234 THz (27.15{%}). Using staircase approximation, the proposed 3-D NI MTM has been designed into a THz parabolic planoconcave lens (PCL). A PCL made of a NI medium is a counterpart of a positive index planoconvex lens and focuses on the near-field region. The designed PCL shows 3-D focusing functionality for linearly and circularly polarized THz waves at 0.85 THz. The designed PCL has a short focal length and high numerical aperture (NA) with sub-wavelength focusing spot sizes. The computed FWHMs along transversal directions are 0.46λ(x) × 0.49λ(y) for transverse electric (TE) polarized wave, 0.46λ(x) × 0.49λ(y) for left-circularly polarized (LCP) wave and 0.50λ(x) × 0.42λ(y) for right-circularly polarized (RCP) wave, respectively. The corresponding back focal lengths of the realized PCLs are 1.07λ, 1.03λ and 0.98λ and the focal depths are 0.40λ, 0.48λ and 0.41λ for linear, LCP and RCP polarized waves, respectively. A short review of recent progress in manufacturing techniques for the fabrication of the proposed 3-D MTM is further highlighted. Since the proposed 3-D MTM PCL configurations show the far-field focusing of linearly/circularly polarized waves, imaging with high optical power requirements can be met for THz waveband applications.
Muthusamy Marishwari Venkatachalam Subramanian Zhengbiao Ouyang Natesan Yogesh , "3-D Metamaterial Based Terahertz Planoconcave Lenses for Linearly and Circularly Polarized Waves," Progress In Electromagnetics Research B, Vol. 98, 21-37, 2023.

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