The analysis of scattering of objects buried below a random rough surface is of practical interest. In reality, the random rough surface may be of an extensive periodic structure. To deal with this more realistic situation, this paper presents a Monte-Carlo MPSTD numerical technique developed for investigating the scattering of a cylinder buried below a random periodic rough surface. The computation model is formulated in two steps. In the first step, only the random rough surface is considered and the periodic boundary condition (PBC) is enforced at the two ends of a period of the rough surface. Then, in the second step, a cylinder is placed below the random rough surface and the interaction between the buried cylinder and the rough surface is taken into account. In each of the two steps, the fields are computed employing the MPSTD algorithm developed in the authors' previous work. Sample numerical results are presented and validated.
"A Monte-Carlo Mpstd Analysis of Scattering from Cylinders Buried Below a Random Periodic Rough Surface," Progress In Electromagnetics Research B,
Vol. 47, 179-202, 2013. doi:10.2528/PIERB12100105
1. Lawrence, D. E. and K. Sarabandi, "Electromagnetic scattering from a dielectric cylinder buried beneath a slightly rough surface," IEEE Transactions on Antennas and Propagation, Vol. 50, No. 10, 1368-1376, Oct. 2002. doi:10.1109/TAP.2002.802160
2. Johnson, J. T. and R. J. Burkholder, "Coupled canonical grid/discrete dipole approach for computing scattering from objects above or below a rough interface," IEEE Transactions on Geoscience and Remote Sensing, Vol. 39, No. 6, 1214-1220, Jun. 2001. doi:10.1109/36.927443
3. Johnson, J. T. and R. J. Burkholder, "A study of scattering from an object below a rough surface," IEEE Transactions on Geoscience and Remote Sensing, Vol. 42, No. 1, 59-66, Jan. 2004. doi:10.1109/TGRS.2003.815670
4. El-Shenawee, M., "Scattering from multiple objects buried beneath two-dimensional random rough surface using the steepest decent fast multipole method ," IEEE Transactions on Antennas and Propagation, Vol. 51, No. 4, 802-809, Apr. 2003. doi:10.1109/TAP.2003.811096
5. El-Shenawee, M., "Polarimetric scattering from two-layered two-dimensional random rough surfaces with and without buried objects," IEEE Transactions on Geosciences and Remote Sensing, Vol. 42, No. 1, 67-76, Jan. 2004. doi:10.1109/TGRS.2003.815675
6. El-Shenawee, M., C. Rappaport, E. Miller, and M. Silevitch, "3-D subsurface analysis of electromagnetic scattering from penetrable/PEC objects buried under rough surface: Use of the steepest descent fast multipole method (SDFMM) ," IEEE Transactions on Geoscience and Remote Sensing, Vol. 39, 1174-1182, Jun. 2001. doi:10.1109/36.927436
7. El-Shenawee, M., C. Rappaport, and M. Silevitch, "Monte Carlo simulations of electromagnetic scattering from random rough surface with 3-D penetrable buried objects: Mine detection application using the SDFMN," Journal of Optical Society America A, Dec. 2001.
8. Kuo, C. and M. Moghaddam, "Electromagnetic scattering from a buried cylinder in layered media with rough interfaces," IEEE Transactions on Antennas and Propagation, Vol. 54, No. 8, 2392-2401, Aug. 2006. doi:10.1109/TAP.2006.879208
9. Duan, X. and M. Moghaddam, "Vector electromagnetic scattering from layered rough surfaces with buried discrete random media for subsurface and root-zone soil moisture sensing," Proceedings of IEEE International Geosciences and Remote Sensing Symposium, 1227-1230, Jul. 2011.
10. Ozgun, O. and M. Kuzuoglu, "Monte Carlo-based characteristic basis finite-element method (MC-CBFEM) for numerical analysis of scattering from objects on/above rough sea surface ," IEEE Transactions on Geoscience and Remote Sensing, Vol. 50, No. 3, 769-783, Mar. 2012. doi:10.1109/TGRS.2011.2162650
11. Kuang, L. and Y.-Q. Jin, "Bistatic scattering from a three-dimensional object over a randomly rough surface using the FDTD algorithm," IEEE Transactions on Antennas and Propagation, Vol. 55, No. 8, 2302-2312, Aug. 2007. doi:10.1109/TAP.2007.901846
12. Dridi, K. H., J. S. Hesthaven, and A. Ditkowski, "Staircase-free finite-difference time-domain formulation for general materials in complex geometries," IEEE Transactions on Antennas and Propagation, Vol. 49, No. 5, 749-756, May 2001. doi:10.1109/8.929629
13. Hastings, F. D., J. B. Schneider, and S. L. Broschat, "A finite-difference time-domain solution to scattering from a rough pressure-release surface," Journal of the Acoustical Society of America, Vol. 102, No. 6, 3394-3400, 1997. doi:10.1121/1.419581
14. Yang, B., D. Gottlieb, and J. S. Hesthaven, "Spectral simulation of electromagnetic wave scattering," Journal of Computational Physics, Vol. 134, 216-230, 1997. doi:10.1006/jcph.1997.5686
15. Yang, B. and J. S. Hesthaven, "A pseudospectral method for time-domain computation of electromagnetic scattering by bodies of revolution," IEEE Transactions on Antennas and Propagation, Vol. 47, No. 1, 132-141, Jan. 1999. doi:10.1109/8.753003
16. Zhao, G. and Q. H. Liu, "The 2.5-D multidomain pseudospectral time-domain algorithm," IEEE Transactions on Antennas and Propagation, Vol. 51, No. 3, 619-627, Mar. 2003. doi:10.1109/TAP.2003.809852
17. Zhao, G. and Q. H. Liu, "The 3-D multidomain pseudospectral time-domain algorithm for inhomogeneous conductive media," IEEE Transactions on Antennas and Propagation, Vol. 52, No. 3, 559-562, Jun. 22-27, 2003.
18. Shi, Y. and C.-H. Liang, "A strongly well-posed PML with unsplit-field formulations in cylindrical and spherical coordinates ," Journal of Electromagnetic Waves and Applications, Vol. 19, No. 13, 1761-1776, 2005. doi:10.1163/156939305775696784
19. Shi, Y. and C. -H. Liang, "Two dimensional multidomain pseudospectral time-domain algorithm based on alternating-direction implicit method ," IEEE Transactions on Antennas and Propagation, Vol. 54, No. 4, 1207-1214, Apr. 2006. doi:10.1109/TAP.2006.872591
20. Shi, Y. and C.-H. Liang, "Multidomain pseudospectral time domain algorithm using a symplectic integrator," IEEE Transactions IEEE Transactions, Vol. 55, No. 2, 433-439, Feb. 2007. doi:10.1109/TAP.2006.889906
21. Shi, Y. and C.-H. Liang, "Characteristic variables patching conditions in multidomain pseudospectral time domain," IEEE Antennas and Wireless Propagation Letters, Vol. 6, 353-356, 2007. doi:10.1109/LAWP.2007.902031
23. Fan, G. X., Q. H. Liu, and J. S. Hesthaven, "Multidomain pseudospectral time-domain simulations of scattering by objects buried in lossy media," IEEE Transactions on Geoscience and Remote Sensing, Vol. 40, No. 6, 1366-1373, Jun. 2002. doi:10.1109/TGRS.2002.800272
24. Taflove, A. and S. C. Hagness, Computational Electrodynamics The Finite-difference Time-domain Method, 3rd Ed., Chapter 17, Advances in PSTD Techniques, by Q. H. Liu and G. Zhao, Artech House, Inc., Norwood, MA, 2005 .
25. Liu, W., Y. Dai, H. Yang, and X.-B. Xu, "Scattering of object buried below random rough surface --- A Monte-Carlo pseudospectral time-domain approach," Electromagnetics, Vol. 32, No. 6, 330-344, Aug. 2012. doi:10.1080/02726343.2012.701515
26. Tsang, L., J. A. Kong, K. H. Ding, and C. O. Ao, Scattering of Electromagnetic Waves, (Volume II) Numerical Simulations, John Wiley & Sons Inc., New York, 2001.
27. Ye, H. and Y. Q. Jin, "Parameterization of the tapered incident wave for numerical simulation of electromagnetic scattering from rough surface," IEEE Transactions on Antennas and Propagation, Vol. 53, No. 3, 1234-1237, Mar. 2005. doi:10.1109/TAP.2004.842586
28. Chan, C. H., S. H. Lou, L. Tsang, and J. A. Kong, "Electromagnetic scattering of waves by random rough surface: A finite-difference time-domain approach," Microwave and Optical Technology Letters, Vol. 4, No. 9, 355-359, Aug. 1991. doi:10.1002/mop.4650040907
29. Veysoglu, M. E., R. T. Shin, and J. A. Kong, "A finite-difference time-domain analysis of wave scattering from periodic surface: Oblique incidence case," Journal of Electromagnetic Waves and Applications, Vol. 7, No. 12, 1595-1607, 1993. doi:10.1163/156939393X00020
30. Tsay, W. J. and D. M. Pozar, "Application of the FDTD technique to periodic problems in scattering and radiation," IEEE Microwave and Guided Wave Letters, Vol. 3, No. 8, 250-252, Aug. 1993. doi:10.1109/75.242225
31. Yang, F., J. Chen, R. Qiang, and A. Elsherbeni, "FDTD analysis of periodic structures at arbitrary angles: A simple and efficient implementation of the periodic boundary conditions," Proceedings of IEEE Antennas and Propagation Society International Symposium, 2715-2718, 2006. doi:10.1109/APS.2006.1711164
32. Wong, P. B., G. L. Tyler, J. E. Baron, E. M. Gurrola, and R. A. Simpson, "A three-wave FDTD approach to surface scattering with applications to remote sensing of geophysical surfaces," IEEE Transactions on Antennas and Propagation, Vol. 44, No. 4, 504-514, Apr. 1996. doi:10.1109/8.489302
33. Zhu, X. and L. Carin, "Multiresolution time-domain analysis of plane-wave scattering from general three-dimensional surface and subsurface dielectric targets ," IEEE Transactions on Antennas and Propagation, Vol. 48, No. 11, 1568-1578, Nov. 2001.
34. Yi, Y., B. Chen, D.-G. Fang, and B.-H. Zhou, "A new 2-D FDTD method applied to scattering by infinite objects with oblique incidence," IEEE Transactions on Electromagnetic Compatibility, Vol. 47, No. 4, 756-762, Nov. 2005. doi:10.1109/TEMC.2005.860559
35. Harrington, R. F., Time-Harmonic Electromagnetic Fields, IEEE Press, 2001.