Vol. 86
Latest Volume
All Volumes
PIERB 98 [2023] PIERB 97 [2022] PIERB 96 [2022] PIERB 95 [2022] PIERB 94 [2021] PIERB 93 [2021] PIERB 92 [2021] PIERB 91 [2021] PIERB 90 [2021] PIERB 89 [2020] PIERB 88 [2020] PIERB 87 [2020] PIERB 86 [2020] PIERB 85 [2019] PIERB 84 [2019] PIERB 83 [2019] PIERB 82 [2018] PIERB 81 [2018] PIERB 80 [2018] PIERB 79 [2017] PIERB 78 [2017] PIERB 77 [2017] PIERB 76 [2017] PIERB 75 [2017] PIERB 74 [2017] PIERB 73 [2017] PIERB 72 [2017] PIERB 71 [2016] PIERB 70 [2016] PIERB 69 [2016] PIERB 68 [2016] PIERB 67 [2016] PIERB 66 [2016] PIERB 65 [2016] PIERB 64 [2015] PIERB 63 [2015] PIERB 62 [2015] PIERB 61 [2014] PIERB 60 [2014] PIERB 59 [2014] PIERB 58 [2014] PIERB 57 [2014] PIERB 56 [2013] PIERB 55 [2013] PIERB 54 [2013] PIERB 53 [2013] PIERB 52 [2013] PIERB 51 [2013] PIERB 50 [2013] PIERB 49 [2013] PIERB 48 [2013] PIERB 47 [2013] PIERB 46 [2013] PIERB 45 [2012] PIERB 44 [2012] PIERB 43 [2012] PIERB 42 [2012] PIERB 41 [2012] PIERB 40 [2012] PIERB 39 [2012] PIERB 38 [2012] PIERB 37 [2012] PIERB 36 [2012] PIERB 35 [2011] PIERB 34 [2011] PIERB 33 [2011] PIERB 32 [2011] PIERB 31 [2011] PIERB 30 [2011] PIERB 29 [2011] PIERB 28 [2011] PIERB 27 [2011] PIERB 26 [2010] PIERB 25 [2010] PIERB 24 [2010] PIERB 23 [2010] PIERB 22 [2010] PIERB 21 [2010] PIERB 20 [2010] PIERB 19 [2010] PIERB 18 [2009] PIERB 17 [2009] PIERB 16 [2009] PIERB 15 [2009] PIERB 14 [2009] PIERB 13 [2009] PIERB 12 [2009] PIERB 11 [2009] PIERB 10 [2008] PIERB 9 [2008] PIERB 8 [2008] PIERB 7 [2008] PIERB 6 [2008] PIERB 5 [2008] PIERB 4 [2008] PIERB 3 [2008] PIERB 2 [2008] PIERB 1 [2008]
2020-02-02
Assessment of Scattering of Plane Waves on Optically Illuminated Area of Rough Surface
By
Progress In Electromagnetics Research B, Vol. 86, 77-102, 2020
Abstract
In this paper, a new robust computational method that applies the geometrical theory of diffraction (GTD) in conjunction with the ray tracing (RT) technique is developed to evaluate the electromagnetic scattering pattern due to a plane wave incident on a rough surface of quite arbitrary statistical parameters. The Fresnel reflection model is applied under the assumption of arbitrary electrical and optical properties of the rough surface material to obtain the scattering patterns for both the power reflected to the upper half-space and the power transmitted into the medium covered by the rough surface. Also, the polarization of the plane wave primarily incident on the rough surface is taken into consideration. The algorithm developed in the present work accounts for multiple bounces of an incident ray and, hence, it can be considered arbitrary higher-order GTD-RT technique. The accuracy of the obtained results is verified through the comparison with the experimental measurements of the scattering pattern of a light beam incident on rough sheets with specific statistical properties. Also, some of the obtained results are compared to other published results using the geometrical optics (GO) and the second-order Kirchhoff's approximation. The numerical results of the present work are concerned with investigating the dependence of the scattering pattern on the surface roughness, refractive index, angle of incidence, and the resolution of the geometric model of the rough surface. Also, it is shown that, for limited resolution of the rough surface model, the accuracy of the calculated scattered field depends on the angle of incidence of the primary beam and the surface roughness.
Citation
Hanaa Helmy Qamar Asmaa Elsayed Farahat Khalid Fawzy Ahmed Hussein Mohamed Bakry El Mashade , "Assessment of Scattering of Plane Waves on Optically Illuminated Area of Rough Surface," Progress In Electromagnetics Research B, Vol. 86, 77-102, 2020.
doi:10.2528/PIERB19072005
http://www.jpier.org/PIERB/pier.php?paper=19072005
References

1. Manallah, A. and M. Bouafia, "Application of the technique of total integrated scattering of light for micro-roughness evaluation of polished surfaces," Physics Procedia, Vol. 21, 174-179, 2011.
doi:10.1016/j.phpro.2011.10.026

2. Germer, T. A., "Polarized light diffusely scattered under smooth and rough interfaces," Polarization Science and Remote Sensing, Vol. 5158, 193-205, International Society for Optics and Photonics, December 2003.
doi:10.1117/12.505979

3. Pinel, N., C. Bourlier, and J. Saillard, "Degree of roughness of rough layers: Extensions of the Rayleigh roughness criterion and some applications," Progress In Electromagnetics Research, Vol. 19, 41-63, 2010.
doi:10.2528/PIERB09110907

4. Ruiz-Cortés, V. A. and J. C. Dainty, "Experimental light-scattering measurements from large-scale composite randomly rough surfaces," JOSA A, Vol. 19, No. 10, 2043-2052, 2002.
doi:10.1364/JOSAA.19.002043

5. Manallah, A. and M. Bouafia, "Application of the technique of total integrated scattering of light for micro-roughness evaluation of polished surfaces," Physics Procedia, Vol. 21, 174-179, 2011.
doi:10.1016/j.phpro.2011.10.026

6. Spencer, M. F., M. W. Hyde, and IV, "Rough surface scattering for active-illumination systems," SPIE Newsroom, 1-2, 2013.

7. Jafari, G. R., S. M. Mahdavi, A. Iraji Zad, and P. Kaghazchi, "Characterization of etched glass surfaces by wave scattering," Surface and Interface Analysis: An International Journal Devoted to the Development and Application of Techniques for the Analysis of Surfaces, Interfaces and Thin Films, Vol. 37, No. 7, 641-645, 2005.

8. Zamani, M., F. Shafiei, S. M. Fazeli, M. C. Downer, and G. R. Jafari, "Analytic height correlation function of rough surfaces derived from light scattering," Physical Review E, Vol. 94, No. 4, 042809, 2016.
doi:10.1103/PhysRevE.94.042809

9. Sanamzadeh, M., L. Tsang, J. T. Johnson, R. J. Burkholder, and S. Tan, "Scattering of electromagnetic waves from 3D multilayer random rough surfaces based on the second-order small perturbation method: Energy conservation, reflectivity, and emissivity," Journal of the Optical Society of America A, Vol. 34, No. 3, 395-409, 2017.
doi:10.1364/JOSAA.34.000395

10. Wu, Z. S., J. J. Zhang, and L. Zhao, "Composite electromagnetic scattering from the plate target above a one-dimensional sea surface: Taking the diffraction into account," Progress In Electromagnetics Research, Vol. 92, 317-331, 2009.
doi:10.2528/PIER09032902

11. Guo, L. and Z. Wu, "Application of the extended boundary condition method to electromagnetic scattering from rough dielectric fractal sea surface," Journal of Electromagnetic Waves and Applications, Vol. 18, No. 9, 1219-1234, 2004.
doi:10.1163/1569393042955342

12. Qamar, H. H., K. F. A. Hussein, and M. B. El-Mashade, "Assessment of signal strength in indoor optical wireless communications using diffuse infrared radiation," 2019 36th National Radio Science Conference (NRSC), IEEE, 2019.

13. Harvey, J. E., J. J. Goshy, and R. N. Pfisterer, "Modeling stray light from rough surfaces and subsurface scatter," Reflection, Scattering, and Diffraction from Surfaces IV, Vol. 9205, 92050I, International Society for Optics and Photonics, September 2014.

14. Beckmann, P., "Scattering by composite rough surfaces," Proceedings of the IEEE, Vol. 53, No. 8, 1012-1015, 1965.
doi:10.1109/PROC.1965.4081

15. Hyde, M. W., S. Basu, M. F. Spencer, S. J. Cusumano, and S. T. Fiorino, "Physical optics solution for the scattering of a partially-coherent wave from a statistically rough material surface," Optics Express, Vol. 21, No. 6, 6807-6825, 2013.
doi:10.1364/OE.21.006807

16. Elfouhaily, T. M. and C. A. Guérin, "A critical survey of approximate scattering wave theories from random rough surfaces," Waves in Random Media, Vol. 14, No. 4, R1-R40, 2004.
doi:10.1088/0959-7174/14/4/R01

17. Rice, S., "Reflection of electromagnetic waves from slightly rough surfaces," Communications on Pure and Applied Mathematics, Vol. 4, No. 2-3, 351-378, 1951.
doi:10.1002/cpa.3160040206

18. Tian, J., J. Tong, J. Shi, and L. Gui, "A new approximate fast method of computing the scattering from multilayer rough surfaces based on the Kirchhoff approximation," Radio Science, Vol. 52, No. 2, 186-193, 2017.
doi:10.1002/2016RS006151

19. Thorsos, E. I., "The validity of the Kirchhoff approximation for rough surface scattering using a Gaussian roughness spectrum," Journal of the Acoustical Society of America, Vol. 83, No. 1, 78-92, 1988.
doi:10.1121/1.396188

20. Demir, M. A. and J. T. Johnson, "Fourth- and higher-order small-perturbation solution for scattering from dielectric rough surfaces," Journal of the Optical Society of America A, Vol. 20, No. 12, 2330-2337, 2003.
doi:10.1364/JOSAA.20.002330

21. Voti, R., G. Leahu, S. Gaetani, C. Sibilia, V. Violante, E. Castagna, and M. Bertolotti, "Light scattering from a rough metal surface: Theory and experiment," Journal of the Optical Society of America B, Vol. 26, No. 8, 1585-1593, 2009.
doi:10.1364/JOSAB.26.001585

22. Vorburger, T., R. Silver, R. Brodmann, B. Brodmann, and J. Seewig, "Light scattering methods," Optical Measurements of Surface Topography, 287-311, R. Leach (Ed.), Springer, Berlin, 2011.

23. Sanchez-Gil, J. A. and M. Nieto-Vesperinas, "Light scattering from random rough dielectric surfaces," Journal of the Optical Society of America A, Vol. 8, No. 8, 1270-1286, 1991.
doi:10.1364/JOSAA.8.001270

24. Nordam, T., P. Letnes, and I. Simonsen, "Numerical simulations of scattering of light from two-dimensional rough surfaces using the reduced Rayleigh equation," Frontiers in Physics, Vol. 1, 8, 2013.

25. Ishimaru, A. and J. Chen, "Scattering from very rough metallic and dielectric surfaces: A theory based on the modified Kirchhoff approximation," Waves in Random Media, Vol. 1, No. 1, 21-34, 1991.
doi:10.1088/0959-7174/1/1/003

26. Bruce, N. and J. Dainty, "Multiple scattering from rough dielectric and metal surfaces using the Kirchhoff approximation," Journal of Modern Optics, Vol. 38, No. 8, 1471-1481, 1991.
doi:10.1080/09500349114551641

27. Bruce, N., "Multiple scatter of vector electromagnetic waves from rough metal surfaces with infinite slopes using the Kirchhoff approximation," Waves in Random and Complex Media, Vol. 21, No. 2, 362-377, 2011.
doi:10.1080/17455030.2011.563803

28. Tang, K., R. Dimenna, and R. Buckius, "Regions of validity of the geometric optics approximation for angular scattering from very rough surfaces," International Journal of Heat and Mass Transfer, Vol. 40, No. 1, 49-59, 1996.
doi:10.1016/S0017-9310(96)00073-7

29. Tang, K. and R. Buckius, "The geometric optics approximation for reflection from two-dimensional random rough surfaces," International Journal of Heat and Mass Transfer, Vol. 41, No. 13, 2037-2047, 1998.
doi:10.1016/S0017-9310(97)00227-5

30. Ishimaru, A. and J. Chen, "Scattering from very rough surfaces based on the modified second-order Kirchhoff approximation with angular and propagation shadowing," The Journal of the Acoustical Society of America, Vol. 88, No. 4, 1877-1883, 1990.
doi:10.1121/1.400210

31. Holliday, D., "Resolution of a controversy surrounding the Kirchhoff approach and the small perturbation method in rough surface scattering theory," IEEE Transactions on Antennas and Propagation, Vol. 35, No. 1, 120-122, 1987.
doi:10.1109/TAP.1987.1143978

32. Soliman, S. A. M., A. E. Farahat, K. F. A. Hussein, and A. A. Ammar, "Spatial domain generation of random surface using Savitzky-Golay filter for simulation of electromagnetic polarimetric systems," Applied Computational Electromagnetics Society Journal, Vol. 34, No. 1, 2019.

33. Millet, F. and K. Warnick, "Validity of rough surface backscattering models," Waves in Random Media, Vol. 14, No. 3, 327-347, 2004.
doi:10.1088/0959-7174/14/3/008

34. Shi, F., W. Choi, M. J. S. Lowe, E. A. Skelton, and R. V. Craster, "The validity of Kirchhoff theory for scattering of elastic waves from rough surfaces," Proceedings of the Royal Society A: Mathematical, Physical and Engineering Sciences, Vol. 471, No. 2178, 20140977, 2015.
doi:10.1098/rspa.2014.0977

35. Hussein, K. F. A., "Fast computational algorithm for EFIE applied to arbitrarily-shaped conducting surfaces," Progress In Electromagnetics Research, Vol. 68, 339-357, 2007.
doi:10.2528/PIER06122502