Compact wireless devices have been proposed as a result of the introduction of wireless communication systems, allowing more space to be used for other electronic components. A reconfigurable antenna is critical in today's cutting-edge wireless technologies. Reconfigurable antennas can perform a variety of tasks depending on their operating frequency, radiation pattern and polarization. Dynamic tuning can be done by altering mechanical, electrical, physical, or optical switches to run a certain switching mechanism. This can be accomplished using a single reconfigurable antenna that allows the user to customize a range of performance attributes such as resonant frequency, polarization and radiation pattern to meet their specific requirements. This paper looks into different types of reconfigurable antenna switching mechanisms, different types of effective implementation techniques, different types of reconfigurable antennas, and some recently proposed reconfigurable antenna designs for the Fifth Generation (5G) and IoT applications in various wireless communication systems.
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