In this paper, measurement, modeling and validation of existing models on the effect of nonhomogeneous vegetation on UHF radio-wave propagation through a long forested channel at frequency of 1835 MHz are reported. The paper focuses on vegetation attenuation measurement through a long forested channel of about 8 km long with mixed vegetation of different density. The measured data were fitted using exponential decay function, and a new model was proposed from the fitted curve. The new proposed model will take care of the limitation in vegetation depth posted by some existing models. Generic models, mainly modified exponential decay and analytical models were also fitted to the data and validated, while RMSE was used to determine the best model that describes the data. The evaluated data results show that all the models tested give significant errors which show that they are not suitable for long forested channel scenario. Though COST 235 has the least error (17.05 dB), the error is still significant because COST 235 could only account for vegetation attenuation of short distance scenario. Attenuation shows corresponding increase with increase in leaves thickness in the forested channel considered, which was due to complex permittivity of the leaves moisture content and the dielectric properties of the leaves saline water. The developed model and other results obtained in this study will help to improve prediction accuracy of the effects of vegetation attenuation in nonhomogeneous vegetation along forested channels and also help in establishing efficient UHF radio link budget for long forested channel scenario.
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