Vol. 29
Latest Volume
All Volumes
PIERL 108 [2023] PIERL 107 [2022] PIERL 106 [2022] PIERL 105 [2022] PIERL 104 [2022] PIERL 103 [2022] PIERL 102 [2022] PIERL 101 [2021] PIERL 100 [2021] PIERL 99 [2021] PIERL 98 [2021] PIERL 97 [2021] PIERL 96 [2021] PIERL 95 [2021] PIERL 94 [2020] PIERL 93 [2020] PIERL 92 [2020] PIERL 91 [2020] PIERL 90 [2020] PIERL 89 [2020] PIERL 88 [2020] PIERL 87 [2019] PIERL 86 [2019] PIERL 85 [2019] PIERL 84 [2019] PIERL 83 [2019] PIERL 82 [2019] PIERL 81 [2019] PIERL 80 [2018] PIERL 79 [2018] PIERL 78 [2018] PIERL 77 [2018] PIERL 76 [2018] PIERL 75 [2018] PIERL 74 [2018] PIERL 73 [2018] PIERL 72 [2018] PIERL 71 [2017] PIERL 70 [2017] PIERL 69 [2017] PIERL 68 [2017] PIERL 67 [2017] PIERL 66 [2017] PIERL 65 [2017] PIERL 64 [2016] PIERL 63 [2016] PIERL 62 [2016] PIERL 61 [2016] PIERL 60 [2016] PIERL 59 [2016] PIERL 58 [2016] PIERL 57 [2015] PIERL 56 [2015] PIERL 55 [2015] PIERL 54 [2015] PIERL 53 [2015] PIERL 52 [2015] PIERL 51 [2015] PIERL 50 [2014] PIERL 49 [2014] PIERL 48 [2014] PIERL 47 [2014] PIERL 46 [2014] PIERL 45 [2014] PIERL 44 [2014] PIERL 43 [2013] PIERL 42 [2013] PIERL 41 [2013] PIERL 40 [2013] PIERL 39 [2013] PIERL 38 [2013] PIERL 37 [2013] PIERL 36 [2013] PIERL 35 [2012] PIERL 34 [2012] PIERL 33 [2012] PIERL 32 [2012] PIERL 31 [2012] PIERL 30 [2012] PIERL 29 [2012] PIERL 28 [2012] PIERL 27 [2011] PIERL 26 [2011] PIERL 25 [2011] PIERL 24 [2011] PIERL 23 [2011] PIERL 22 [2011] PIERL 21 [2011] PIERL 20 [2011] PIERL 19 [2010] PIERL 18 [2010] PIERL 17 [2010] PIERL 16 [2010] PIERL 15 [2010] PIERL 14 [2010] PIERL 13 [2010] PIERL 12 [2009] PIERL 11 [2009] PIERL 10 [2009] PIERL 9 [2009] PIERL 8 [2009] PIERL 7 [2009] PIERL 6 [2009] PIERL 5 [2008] PIERL 4 [2008] PIERL 3 [2008] PIERL 2 [2008] PIERL 1 [2008]
2012-02-08
PIER Letters
Vol. 29, 201-211, 2012
download: 126
A Modified Cauchy Method Suitable for Duplexer and Triplexer Rational Models Extraction
Yong-Liang Zhang Tao Su Bian Wu Jia Chen Chang-Hong Liang
A modified Cauchy method which generates accurate duplexer and triplexer rational models from either measurements or electromagnetic analysis is presented in this paper. The modified Cauchy method has some advantages over the conventional Cauchy method because it takes into account the relationship between the transmission coefficients of each channel filter and reflection coefficient. It is suitable for duplexer and triplexer whose channel filters are connected through resonating junction. The total least square method is used to solve the system matrix. Synthesized numerical duplexer and triplexer examples verify the method successfully.
A MODIFIED CAUCHY METHOD SUITABLE FOR DUPLEXER AND TRIPLEXER RATIONAL MODELS EXTRACTION
2012-02-08
PIER Letters
Vol. 29, 185-199, 2012
download: 121
Design and Development of Corner Truncated U and Inverted U-Slot Multiband Tunable Rectangular Microstrip Antenna
Nagraj Kulkarni Shivasharanappa Mulgi Sharnappa Satnoor
This paper presents the design and development of corner truncated rectangular microstrip antenna comprising U and inverted U-slot for multiband tunable operation, wide impedance bandwidth, and high gain. By incorporating U and inverted U-slots of optimum geometry on the radiating patch the proposed antenna operates between 3 to 12 GHz at different frequency bands and giving a peak gain of 1.73 dB without changing the nature of broadside radiation characteristics, compared to conventional rectangular microstrip antenna. The experimental and simulated results are in good agreement with each other. Design concepts of the antenna are given. The experimental results are presented and discussed. The proposed antennas may find applications in WiMax, HIPERLAN/2, and radar communication systems.
DESIGN AND DEVELOPMENT OF CORNER TRUNCATED U AND INVERTED U-SLOT MULTIBAND TUNABLE RECTANGULAR MICROSTRIP ANTENNA
2012-02-07
PIER Letters
Vol. 29, 175-184, 2012
download: 146
A Novel Four Layer Metallization for Microwave Integrated Circuits
Rakesh Kumar Sharma Sandeep Patel Arun Bindal Kamlesh C. Pargaien
In order to overcome the problems facing Cr-Cu-Au metallization, such as discoloration, diffusion of Cu into Au, a four-layer metallization Cr-Cu-NiP-Au is demonstrated on alumina substrate for microwave integrated circuit (MICs). A amorphous and nonmagnetic NiP barrier layer is used to avoid the diffusion of Cu into Au through the grain boundaries, which are the low activation energy path for diffusion at moderate temperature. In this view, properties of Cr-Cu-NiP-Au metallization, such as sheet resistance, solderability, bondability and adhesion strength, are evaluated. Further integrity of Cr-Cu-NiP-Au structure is evaluated by subjecting to this structure to multiple temperature cycles test. Visual observation is carried our before and after the thermal cycling test. No degradation is observed as the consequence of thermal cycling test. Test and evaluation are carried out for a multi-section broadband power divider (1 : 2) on this metallization (metal thickness 12-12.5 microns) in the 0-6 GHz frequency range. Insertion loss, return loss and isolation are comparable with Cr-Cu-Au (metal thickness 5.0-6.0 microns). Performance of the power divider and properties of this metallization system reveal its novelty over the existing.
A NOVEL FOUR LAYER METALLIZATION FOR MICROWAVE INTEGRATED CIRCUITS
2012-02-04
PIER Letters
Vol. 29, 167-173, 2012
download: 194
Microstrip Phase Inverter Using Interdigital Strip Lines and Defected Ground
Xu-Chun Zhang Chang-Hong Liang Jun Wei Xie
A new wide-band microstrip phase inverter is reported in this paper. Interdigital striplines, defected ground and via holes are used to obtain 180° phase shift. The structure is simple and can be realized with ordinary microwave integrated circuit (MIC) fabrication process. The bandwidth is enhanced largely. A lumped-element model of the phase shifter is devised. The fabricated phase inverter has a bandwidth of 105.6% (2.065-6.682 GHz), with 1 dB insertion loss and a phase deviation less than 10°.
MICROSTRIP PHASE INVERTER USING INTERDIGITAL STRIP LINES AND DEFECTED GROUND
2012-02-01
PIER Letters
Vol. 29, 157-166, 2012
download: 125
A Simplified Equivalent Circuit Model for Defected Ground Structures in Planar Transmission Lines
Hany Mohamed Taher
In this paper, an equivalent circuit model for special type of planer transmission lines with defected ground structures (DGS) is presented. This structure has multi stop bands in its frequency behaviour. The proposed circuit is very simple compared to the previously published works. It is considered as simplified form of the model found in [8]. Using sensitivity analysis on model [8], some circuit parameters can be omitted without significant influence on the response of the model. The modified model is easily extracted from the full-wave EM simulations. An excellent agreement is obtained between S-parameters of the simplified equivalent circuit and their counterpart of full wave EM simulators.
A SIMPLIFIED EQUIVALENT CIRCUIT MODEL FOR DEFECTED GROUND STRUCTURES IN PLANAR TRANSMISSION LINES
2012-01-27
PIER Letters
Vol. 29, 151-156, 2012
download: 117
Correlation for Multi-Frequency Propagation in Urban Environments
B. Van Laethem Francois Quitin Francois Bellens Claude Oestges Philippe De Doncker
The multi-frequency propagation in urban environment is investigated in this letter. An experimental measurement campaign is conducted to simultaneously measure the GSM-900, GSM-1800 and UMTS band of a cellular system in a suburban environment. The shadowing and small-scale fading parameters are extracted, and the correlation of these parameters across the different frequency bands is measured. It is shown that shadowing coefficients are highly correlated, while small-scale fading is completely uncorrelated between different frequency bands.
CORRELATION FOR MULTI-FREQUENCY PROPAGATION IN URBAN ENVIRONMENTS
2012-01-26
PIER Letters
Vol. 29, 139-149, 2012
download: 158
Permittivity of Waste-Activated Sludge by an Open-Ended Coaxial Line
Jake S. Bobowski Thomas Johnson Cigdem Eskicioglu
The complex permittivity of thickened waste activated sludge (WAS) was measured from 3 MHz to 40 GHz. The solid content of the thickened WAS sample was varied from 4.5% to 18% by weight. The permittivity spectra exhibit features typical of biological tissues that have a high water content. At high frequencies, a Debye type dispersion is observed with a relaxation rate of 19 GHz characteristic of the bulk water in the sample (γ-dispersion). At lower frequencies, the solid content of the samples determines the properties of the permittivity. The onset of the so-called β-dispersion, attributed to the charging of cell membranes, occurs between 10-100 MHz. For samples with higher solid concentrations, a weak dispersion of the real part of the permittivity, characteristic of bound water, was observed at intermediate frequencies (δ-dispersion).
PERMITTIVITY OF WASTE-ACTIVATED SLUDGE BY AN OPEN-ENDED COAXIAL LINE
2012-01-25
PIER Letters
Vol. 29, 127-138, 2012
download: 126
Effects of Power-Frequency Magnetic Fields on Body Mass in Rats: a Pooled Analysis
Tsutomu Nishimura Harue Tada Satoshi Teramukai Kaneo Mohri Masanori Fukushima
There is some evidence that exposure of various animals to a power-frequency magnetic field can cause increases in body mass. However, the precise nature of the relationship is not clear, particularly for long-term exposure. To clarify the relationship between long-term power-frequency magnetic field exposure (2 years) and animal body mass, we conducted a pooled analysis of data in two studies to examine the impact of power-frequency magnetic field exposure on body mass as compared with sham-exposed rats of both sexes. Relative body mass was the response variable, and the study duration (in weeks), magnetic flux density ($\upmu$T), and daily exposure time (hours/day) were the explanatory variables with adjustment for the study. We analyzed by sex. The P-value (P) was defined as the probability of having observed our data (or more extreme data) when the null hypothesis was true. In multiple linear regression analyses of male and female rats, performed separately, we obtained estimates of the effect on relative body mass of study duration (coefficients 0.0225 and 0.0201, respectively; both P<0.0001), magnetic flux density (coefficient 0.0002 for males, P<0.0001; coefficient -0.0002 for females, P=0.0015), and daily exposure time (coefficient 0.046 for males, P=0.0007; coefficient -0.072 for females, P<0.0001). Our pooled analysis has shown that there is a possible relationship between duration of exposure to power-frequency magnetic fields and body mass in rats.
EFFECTS OF POWER-FREQUENCY MAGNETIC FIELDS ON BODY MASS IN RATS: A POOLED ANALYSIS
2012-01-20
PIER Letters
Vol. 29, 115-126, 2012
download: 291
Key Design Parameters and Sensor-Fusion for Low-Power Wearable UWB-Based Motion Tracking and Gait Analysis Systems
Mohamad Abou El-Nasr Heba A. Shaban R. Michael Buehrer
Recently, we proposed a wireless ambulatory gait analysis system that provides a high ranging accuracy using ultra-wideband (UWB) transceivers. In this paper, we further investigate the performance of our proposed system including ranging using suboptimal templates, power consumption, and sensor-fusion. We show that the proposed system is capable of providing a 1.1 mm ranging accuracy (1.17 cm for current systems) at a signal-to-noise-ratio (SNR) of 20 dB using suboptimal-based receivers in industry accepted body-area-network UWB channels. For the angular-displacement, our system provides an accuracy that is less than 1o for the knee-flexion angle. This accuracy is superior to the accuracy reported in the literature for current technologies (less than 4o). Finally, we propose the integration of UWB sensors with force sensors. The system performance and design parameters are investigated using simulations and actual measurements. Ultimately, the proposed system is suitable for taking accurate measurements, and for tele-rehabilitation.
KEY DESIGN PARAMETERS AND SENSOR-FUSION FOR LOW-POWER WEARABLE UWB-BASED MOTION TRACKING AND GAIT ANALYSIS SYSTEMS
2012-01-20
PIER Letters
Vol. 29, 107-113, 2012
download: 105
5.8-GHz Suppressed UWB Bandpass Filter Employing Modified CRLH-TL of Two and Three Unit Cells
Yizhu Shen Choi Look Law
This paper presents a novel modified composite right/left-handed (CRLH) unit cell to achieve sharp rejection at 5.8 GHz. Design formulas are theoretically derived and numerically verified. Based on this unit cell, ultra-wideband (UWB) bandpass filters with two and three cells are designed, fabricated, and on-wafer measured. The measurement results show that the CRLH bandpass filter has a rejection of >60 dB at 5.8 GHz, a minimum insertion loss of 1.1 dB, and 3-dB bandwidths of 3.09-4.79 GHz and 3.22-4.61 GHz for the two and three unit cells, respectively.
5.8-GHz SUPPRESSED UWB BANDPASS FILTER EMPLOYING MODIFIED CRLH-TL OF TWO AND THREE UNIT CELLS
2012-01-20
PIER Letters
Vol. 29, 97-106, 2012
download: 106
Experimental Characterization of a Wireless MIMO Channel at 2.4 GHz in Underground Mine Gallery
Ismail Ben Mabrouk Larbi Talbi Bilel Mnasri Mourad Nedil Nahi Kandil
This paper deals with several aspects relative to the Multiple-Input Multiple-Output (MIMO) propagation channel. Measurement campaigns, made in a real gold mine at 2.4 GHz under line-of-sight (LOS) and non-line-of-sight (NLOS) scenarios, have been analyzed to obtain the relevant statistical parameters of the channel. It was shown that the MIMO exploit the multipath propagation in rich scattering environment to increase the capacity. Hence, the channel is characterized in terms of K-factor, path loss, shadowing, and capacity. Results show a propagation behavior that is specific for these underground environments with rough surfaces.
EXPERIMENTAL CHARACTERIZATION OF A WIRELESS MIMO CHANNEL AT 2.4 GHz IN UNDERGROUND MINE GALLERY
2012-01-20
PIER Letters
Vol. 29, 87-95, 2012
download: 111
Compact Bandpass Filter with Wide Upper-Stopband Based on Spiral-Shaped Resonators and Spur-Lines
Liang Ma Kaijun Song Chunlin Zhuge Yong Fan
A novel compact bandpass filter (BPF) with wide upper-stopband has been proposed in this paper. The structure is based on spiral-shaped resonators. Cross coupling is used to generate two transmission zeros at the lower and upper stopbands. Therefore, the out-of-band performance is improved. In addition, two spur-lines are adopted in the feed lines to reject the spurious response. The central frequency f0 of this filter is at 2.45 GHz with a minimum insertion loss of less than 1 dB and a 3 dB bandwidth of 12.5%. Four transmission zeros are located at 2 GHz, 3 GHz, 5.5 GHz, and 8 GHz. The attenuation is greater than 20dB in a wide upper stopband up to 9.8 GHz.
COMPACT BANDPASS FILTER WITH WIDE UPPER-STOPBAND BASED ON SPIRAL-SHAPED RESONATORS AND SPUR-LINES
2012-01-19
PIER Letters
Vol. 29, 75-86, 2012
download: 111
Compact, Printed, Standalone Penta-Band Antenna for WWAN Operation
Saou-Wen Su Yu-Wei Chang
A standalone, printed monopole antenna with a two-branch shorting strip and a grounding wire to achieve a small size and yet multi-band operation for penta-band wireless wide area network (WWAN) operation (824-960/1710-2170 MHz) is presented. The antenna was formed on a low-cost, single-layered dielectric substrate with the dimensions 10 mm×50 mm. By applying the proposed grounding wire and the dual-shorting strip, two resonant modes in close proximity in the antenna's lower band were obtained to cover the GSM850/900 operation. Further, the proposed shorting strip led to two additional, higher-order resonance excitation at about 1700 and 1800 MHz to assist in the formation of a wide upper band to cover the GSM1800/1900/UMTS operation. The proposed antenna also showed good radiation properties. Details of the design are described and discussed in the article.
COMPACT, PRINTED, STANDALONE PENTA-BAND ANTENNA FOR WWAN OPERATION
2012-01-19
PIER Letters
Vol. 29, 65-74, 2012
download: 113
Miniaturized Dual-Mode Substrate Integrated Waveguide (SIW) Band-Pass Filters Loaded by Double/Single T-Shaped Structures
Li-Na Chen Yong-Chang Jiao Zheng Zhang Fu-Shun Zhang Yue-Ying Chen
A new class of miniaturized dual-mode substrate integrated waveguide (SIW) band-pass filters is proposed, which are loaded by double/single T-shaped structures. By introducing a double T-shaped structure in original dual-mode SIW band-pass filter, the resonant frequency is lowered from 9.46 GHz to 8.91 GHz due to the longer effective length. The introduced single T-shaped structure performs an even lower resonant frequency of 6.88 GHz for the same reason. Compared with dual-mode band-pass filters in references, the proposed dual-mode SIW band-pass filters with double/single T-shaped structures have the advantages such as compact size (like microstrip dual-mode filters) and high Q factors (like SIW dual-mode filters). The proposed filters are fabricated and measured, and the experimental results are in good agreement with simulated ones.
MINIATURIZED DUAL-MODE SUBSTRATE INTEGRATED WAVEGUIDE (SIW) BAND-PASS FILTERS LOADED BY DOUBLE/SINGLE T-SHAPED STRUCTURES
2012-01-19
PIER Letters
Vol. 29, 51-64, 2012
download: 95
Application of the Cosine Window Function with the Parameters Optimized by Genetic Algorithm in Bistatic Planar Near-Field Scattering Measurements
Ding Yu Weigang Zhai Guitao Xie De-Min Fu
The cosine window function with the parameters optimized by Genetic Algorithm (GA) is applied in bistatic planar near-field scattering measurements so as to effectively improve the measurement precision. With the infinitely long ideal conductor cylinder as the target under test, the bistatic planar near-field scattering measurement technique is studied by the method of computer simulation and some useful results and basic laws are obtained. The calculation results show that the truncation errors caused by finite scan plane in the far-field Radar Cross Section (RCS) of the target under test obtained by near-field to far-field transformation can be reduced greatly by the weighting process of the measured scattered near-field data by means of the cosine window function with the parameters optimized by GA.
APPLICATION OF THE COSINE WINDOW FUNCTION WITH THE PARAMETERS OPTIMIZED BY GENETIC ALGORITHM IN BISTATIC PLANAR NEAR-FIELD SCATTERING MEASUREMENTS
2012-01-18
PIER Letters
Vol. 29, 43-50, 2012
download: 130
Tunable Filtenna Using Varactor Tuned Rings Fed with an Ultra Wideband Antenna
Jason Leo Durbin Mohammad Saed
A tunable filtering antenna (filtenna) realized using rings fed with an ultra-wideband (UWB) planar, elliptical monopole antenna is proposed. An array of slotted rings with varactors is placed in close proximity of the planar monopole to obtain the low profile tunable filtenna. The array of rings can be viewed as a small tunable frequency selective surface. The design produces a tuning range of about 3.8-4.4 GHz over a varactor reverse bias voltage of 1-4 V.
TUNABLE FILTENNA USING VARACTOR TUNED RINGS FED WITH AN ULTRA WIDEBAND ANTENNA
2012-01-13
PIER Letters
Vol. 29, 35-42, 2012
download: 322
A Calibration Procedure for Two-Port VNA with Three Measurement Channels Based on T-Matrix
Wei Zhao Hong-Bo Qin Li Qiang
A simplified calibration procedure using T-matrix concept is presented for two-port vector network analyzer (VNA) with three measurement channels. Compared with Short-Open-Load-Thru (SOLT) calibration method based on 10-term error model where 10 error terms must be solved and saved at each frequency, the proposed method need define fewer characteristic variables. Moreover, a length-unknown 50Ω line can be used instead of a random single-port standard, for example, substituting Load standard with 50Ω line in SOLT calibration procedure. Via the simplified calibration procedure, the scattering parameters of a two-port device under test (DUT) can be finally obtained. Experimental verification is carried out, and good agreement is observed.
A CALIBRATION PROCEDURE FOR TWO-PORT VNA WITH THREE MEASUREMENT CHANNELS BASED ON T-MATRIX
2012-01-12
PIER Letters
Vol. 29, 25-33, 2012
download: 409
Design of a Wideband Monopulse Antenna Using Four Conical Helix Antennas
Hassan Gharibi Farrokh Hojjat-Kashani
A novel S-band monopulse antenna with four conical helix antennas on a microstrip substrate comparator is designed, fabricated and measured. Conical helix antenna height is 3λ, and comparator size is 130mm×150mm. The bandwidth (SWR <2 dB) of the antenna is 21.3% with an operating frequency range of 2.7 GHz-3.35 GHz. The maximum gain of the sum pattern is 17.4 dB, and the null depths of the difference pattern are less than -30 dB.
DESIGN OF A WIDEBAND MONOPULSE ANTENNA USING FOUR CONICAL HELIX ANTENNAS
2012-01-11
PIER Letters
Vol. 29, 15-23, 2012
download: 98
A Planar Compact Triple-Band Monopole Antenna for WLAN/WiMAX Applications
Jie Cai Xiang Zhao Chang-Jun Liu Liping Yan
A planar triple-band monopole antenna with a U-shaped stripline and a L slot is presented. The antenna is very compact with a size of 20×30×1.5 mm3 and fed by a 50 Ω microstrip line with a defected ground. The measured -10dB impedance bandwidth of the proposed antenna covers 2.33 GHz-2.51 GHz, 3.25 GHz-3.82 GHz, and 4.83 GHz-8.4 GHz, respectively, which meets the specifications of WLAN 2.4/5.2/5.8GHz and WiMAX 3.5/5.5 GHz. The radiation characteristics shows a monopole-like pattern, and the measured results are in agreements with the simulated ones.
A PLANAR COMPACT TRIPLE-BAND MONOPOLE ANTENNA FOR WLAN/WiMAX APPLICATIONS
2012-01-08
PIER Letters
Vol. 29, 1-13, 2012
download: 151
Concentric Circular Antenna Array Synthesis Using Comprehensive Learning Particle Swarm Optimizer
Elsayed Ibrahim Elsaidy Moawad Ibrahim Dessouky Salah Khamis Yasser Albagory
Concentric circular antenna array (CCAA) is synthesized to generate pencil beam with minimum side lobe level (SLL). The comprehensive learning particle swarm optimizer (CLPSO) is used for synthesizing a ten-ring CCAA with central element. This Synthesis is done by finding the optimum current excitation weights and interelement spacing of rings. The computational results show that sidelobe level is reduced to -40.5 dB with narrow beamwith about 4.1o.
CONCENTRIC CIRCULAR ANTENNA ARRAY SYNTHESIS USING COMPREHENSIVE LEARNING PARTICLE SWARM OPTIMIZER