Vol. 103

Front:[PDF file] Back:[PDF file]
Latest Volume
All Volumes
All Issues
2022-02-22

Compact Broadband 3 × 3 Nolen Matrix with Flat Output Ports Phase Differences

By Hongmei Liu, Hongxiao Zhang, Da Yu, Shao-Jun Fang, and Zhongbao Wang
Progress In Electromagnetics Research Letters, Vol. 103, 49-56, 2022
doi:10.2528/PIERL21112201

Abstract

In the paper, a compact broadband 3×3 Nolen matrix with flatten output ports phase differences is presented. By using two types of three-branch quadrature couplers, wideband impedance matching and flatten output ports amplitudes are obtained. Besides, imbalanced output ports phase differences are compensated by inserting two differential phase shifters between the couplers. Design equations for the proposed structure are derived, and influences of the two differential phase shifters on the phase differences of the Nolen matrix are investigated. To verify the effectiveness of the structure, a prototype operating at 5.8 GHz is fabricated and measured. Measurement results agree well with the simulated ones. Fractional bandwidths (FBWs) of 31.21% and 45.17% are obtained for 15-dB return loss and 15-dB isolation. Moreover, under the criterions of amplitude imbalance < 1 dB and phase difference < 5°, the measured FBWs are more than 23.20% and 23.96%, respectively.

Citation


Hongmei Liu, Hongxiao Zhang, Da Yu, Shao-Jun Fang, and Zhongbao Wang, "Compact Broadband 3 × 3 Nolen Matrix with Flat Output Ports Phase Differences," Progress In Electromagnetics Research Letters, Vol. 103, 49-56, 2022.
doi:10.2528/PIERL21112201
http://www.jpier.org/PIERL/pier.php?paper=21112201

References


    1. Tajik, A. S. and M. Fakharzadeh, "Asymmetrical 4 x 4 Butler matrix and its application for single layer 8 x 8 Butler matrix," IEEE Transactions on Antennas and Propagation, Vol. 67, No. 8, 5372-5379, Aug. 2019.
    doi:10.1109/TAP.2019.2916695

    2. Liu, H., S. Fang, Z. Wang, and S. Fu, "Design of arbitrary-phase-difference transdirectional coupler and its application to a flexible Butler matrix," IEEE Transactions on Microwave Theory and Techniques, Vol. 67, No. 10, 4175-4185, Oct. 2019.
    doi:10.1109/TMTT.2019.2934440

    3. Xiang, K., F. Chen, Q. Chu, and M. J. Lancaster, "A broadband 3 x 4 Butler matrix and its application in multibeam antenna arrays," IEEE Transactions on Antennas and Propagation, Vol. 67, No. 12, 7622-7627, Dec. 2019.
    doi:10.1109/TAP.2019.2934793

    4. Chen, P., W. Hong, Z. Kuai, and J. Xu, "A double layer substrate integrated waveguide Blass matrix for beamforming applications," IEEE Microwave and Wireless Components Letters, Vol. 19, No. 6, 374-376, Jun. 2009.
    doi:10.1109/LMWC.2009.2020020

    5. Tsokos, et al., "Analysis of a multibeam optical beamforming network based on Blass matrix architecture," Journal of Lightwave Technology, Vol. 36, No. 16, 3354-3372, Aug. 15, 2018.
    doi:10.1109/JLT.2018.2841861

    6. Fonseca, N. J. G., "Study and design of a s-band 4 x 4 Nolen matrix for satellite digital multimedia broadcasting applications," 2006 12th International Symposium on Antenna Technology and Applied Electromagnetics and Canadian Radio Sciences Conference, 1-4, 2006.

    7. Fonseca, N. J. G., "Printed S-band 4 x 4 Nolen matrix for multiple beam antenna applications," IEEE Transactions on Antennas and Propagation, Vol. 57, No. 6, 1673-1678, Jun. 2009.
    doi:10.1109/TAP.2009.2019919

    8. Djerafi, T., N. J. G. Fonseca, and K. Wu, "Planar Ku-band 4 x 4 Nolen matrix in SIW technology," IEEE Transactions on Microwave Theory and Techniques, Vol. 58, No. 2, 259-266, Feb. 2010.
    doi:10.1109/TMTT.2009.2037866

    9. Djerafi, T., N. J. G. Fonseca, and K. Wu, "Broadband substrate integrated waveguide 4 x 4 Nolen matrix based on coupler delay compensation," IEEE Transactions on Microwave Theory and Techniques, Vol. 59, No. 7, 1740-1745, Jul. 2011.
    doi:10.1109/TMTT.2011.2142320

    10. Ren, H., H. Zhang, and B. Arigong, "Ultra-compact 3 x 3 Nolen matrix beamforming network," IET Microw. Antennas Propag., Vol. 14, No. 3, 143-148, Jan. 2020.
    doi:10.1049/iet-map.2019.0336

    11. Ren, H., H. Zhang, Y. Jin, Y. Gu, and B. Arigong, "A novel 2-D 3 x 3 Nolen matrix for 2-D beamforming applications," IEEE Transactions on Microwave Theory and Techniques, Vol. 67, No. 11, 4622-4631, Nov. 2019.
    doi:10.1109/TMTT.2019.2917211

    12. Li, P., H. Ren, and B. Arigong, "A symmetric beam-phased array fed by a Nolen matrix using 180 couplers," IEEE Microwave and Wireless Components Letters, Vol. 30, No. 4, 387-390, Apr. 2020.
    doi:10.1109/LMWC.2020.2972728

    13. Li, P., H. Ren, and B. Arigong, "A uniplanar 3 x 3 Nolen matrix beamformer with beam squint reduction," 2020 IEEE International Symposium on Antennas and Propagation and North American Radio Science Meeting, 515-516, 2020.
    doi:10.1109/IEEECONF35879.2020.9330197