Vol. 69

Front:[PDF file] Back:[PDF file]
Latest Volume
All Volumes
All Issues

Artificial Electromagnetic Characteristics Analysis in Hyperbolic Metamaterials Slot Waveguides Based on Graphene

By Xu Li, Lin Cheng, Mingrui Yuan, Pengfei Cao, Xiaodong He, and Xiaoping Zhang
Progress In Electromagnetics Research C, Vol. 69, 199-207, 2016


In this paper, hyperbolic metamaterials slot waveguides based on graphene have been proposed to explore the optical characteristics. The hyperbolic metamaterials are composed of graphene-dielectric alternating multilayer. It has been verified in our proposed structure that the optical field is enhanced efficiently in the slot region, which results in the optical gradient force becoming larger as the distance of slot region becomes smaller. Both numerical simulation and theoretical analysis systematically reveal that the stronger gradient force can be achieved through smaller slot gap or lower chemical potential. Furthermore, the optical properties of two coupled waveguides have been studied under the relation of incident wavelength, chemical potential of graphene, composition of graphene-dielectric multilayer (eg., number of periods, filling factor of graphene) of the waveguides in this work. We find that a larger gradient force can be obtained by adjusting the height of waveguides, either decreasing the thickness of dielectric with constant number of periods or compressing the number of periods with fixed graphene filling factor. Our results will be helpful to the study of the optical field in the infrared region and also has great potentials in nanoscale manipulation and plasmonic devices.


Xu Li, Lin Cheng, Mingrui Yuan, Pengfei Cao, Xiaodong He, and Xiaoping Zhang, "Artificial Electromagnetic Characteristics Analysis in Hyperbolic Metamaterials Slot Waveguides Based on Graphene," Progress In Electromagnetics Research C, Vol. 69, 199-207, 2016.


    1. Barnakov, Y. A., H. Li, E. E. Narimanov, M. A. Noginov, T. Tumkur, and G. Zhu, "Bulk photonic metamaterial with hyperbolic dispersion," Applied Physics Letters, Vol. 94, No. 15, 151105-151105-3, 2008.

    2. Yao, J., Z. Liu, Y. Liu, Y. Wang, C. Sun, G. Bartal, A. M. Stacy, and X. Zhang, "Optical negative refraction in bulk metamaterials of nanowires," Science, Vol. 321, No. 5891, 930, 2008.

    3. Wood, B., J. B. Pendry, and D. P. Tsai, "Directed sub-wavelength imaging using a layered metaldielectric system," Physics, 2006, doi:10.1103/PhysRevB.74.1151163.

    4. Jacob, Z., J. Y. Kim, G. V. Naik, A. Boltasseva, E. E. Narimanov, and V. M. Shalaev, "Engineering photonic density of states using metamaterials," Applied Physics B, Vol. 100, No. 1, 215-218, 2010.

    5. Mei, Z. L., Y. L. Xu, J. Bai, and T. J. Cui, "Nonmagnetic electromagnetic transparent wall realized by a metal-dielectric multilayer structure," Optics Express, Vol. 20, No. 15, 16955-16967, 2012.

    6. Starkobowes, R., J. Atkinson, W. Newman, H. Hu, T. Kallos, G. Palikaras, R. Fedosejevs, S. Pramanik, and Z. Jacob, "Optical characterization of epsilon-near-zero, epsilon-near-pole, and hyperbolic response in nanowire metamaterials," Journal of the Optical Society of America B, Vol. 32, No. 10, 2015.

    7. Cui, J. P., W. S. Zhao, W. Y. Yin, and J. Hu, "Signal transmission analysis of multilayer graphene nanoribbon (MLGNR) interconnects," IEEE Transactions on Electromagnetic Compatibility, Vol. 54, No. 1, 126-132, 2012.

    8. Fei, Z., A. S. Rodin, G. O. Andreev, and W. Bao, "Gate-tuning of graphene plasmons revealed by infrared nano-imaging," Nature, Vol. 487, No. 7405, 82-85, 2012.

    9. Liu, H., Y. Liu, and D. Zhu, "Chemical doping of graphene," Journal of Materials Chemistry, Vol. 21, No. 10, 3335-3345, 2011.

    10. Guo, B., L. Fang, B. Zhang, and J. R. Gong, "Graphene doping: A review," Sciences Journal, Vol. 1, No. 2, 80-89, 2011.

    11. Ballestar, A., et al., "Possible superconductivity in multi-layer-graphene by application of a gate voltage," Carbon, Vol. 72, No. 2, 312-320, 2014.

    12. Ju, L., B. Geng, L. Horng, C. Girit, M. Martin, Z. Hao, H. A. Bechtel, X. Liang, A. Zettl, and Y. R. Shen, "Graphene plasmonics for tunable terahertz metamaterials," Nature Nanotechnology, Vol. 6, No. 10, 630-634, 2011.

    13. Zhu, B., G. Ren, Y. Gao, Y. Yang, B.Wu, Y. Lian, and S. Jian, "Local field enhancement in infrared graphene-dielectric hyperbolic slot waveguies," IEEE Photonic Technology Letters, Vol. 27, No. 3, 276-279, 2015.

    14. Yang, X., Y. Liu, R. F. Oulton, X. Yin, and X. Zhang, "Optical forces in hybird plasmonic waveguides," Nano Letter., Vol. 11, No. 2, 321-328, 2011.

    15. Ginis, V., P. Tassin, C. M. Soukoulis, and I. Veretennicoff, "Enhancing optical gradient forces with metamaterials," Physical Review Letter, Vol. 110, No. 5, 66-71, 2013.

    16. He, Y., S. He, J. Gao, and X. Yang, "Giant transverse optical forces in nanoscale slot waveguides of hyperbolic metamaterials," Optics Express, Vol. 20, No. 20, 22372-22382, 2012.

    17. Zhao, Q., C. Guclu, Y. Huang, F. Capolino, and O. Boyraz, "Silicon nitride waveguides for plasmon optical trapping and sensing applications," Physics, 2015.

    18. Yang, A. H. J., S. D. Moore, B. S. Schmidet, M. Klug, M. Lipson, and D. Erickson, "Optical manipulation of nanoparticle biomolecules in sub-wavelength slot waveguides," Nature, Vol. 457, No. 7225, 71-75, 2009.

    19. Zhang, T., L. Chen, and X. Li, "Graphene-based tunable broadband hyperlens for far-field subdiffraction imaging at mid-infrared frequencies," Optics Express, Vol. 21, No. 18, 20888-20899, 2013.

    20. Wang, B., X. Zhang, X. Yuan, and J. Teng, "Optical coupling of surface plasmons between graphene sheets," Applied physics Letter, Vol. 100, No. 13, 131111-131114, 2012.

    21. Sun, Y., Z. Zheng, J. Cheng, G. Sun, and G. Qiao, "Highly efficient second harmonic generation in hyperbolic metamaterials slot waveguides with large phase matching tolerance," Optics Express, Vol. 23, No. 5, 6370-6378, 2015.

    22. Shekhar, P., J. Atkinson, and Z. Jacob, "Hyperbolic metamaterials: fundamentals and apllications," Physics, Vol. 1, No. 1, 1-17, 2014.

    23. He, Y., S. He, and X. Yang, "Optical field enhancement in nanoscale slot waveguides of hyperbolic metamaterials," Optics Letters, Vol. 37, No. 14, 2907-2909, 2012.

    24. Almeida, V. R., Q. Xu, C. A. Barrios, and M. Lipson, "Guiding and confing light in void nanostructure," Optics Letters, Vol. 29, No. 11, 1209-1211, 2004.

    25. Novotny, L., B. Hecht, and O. Keller, Principles of Nano-optics, Vol. 60, No. 7, 41, Cambridge University Press, 2012.

    26. Esteban, R., A. G. Borisov, P. Nordlander, and J. Aizpurua, "Bridging quantum and classical plasmonics with a quantum-corrected model," Nature Communications, Vol. 3, No. 3, 199-202, 2012.

    27. Marinica, D. C., A. K. Kazansky, P. Nordlander, J. Aizpurua, and A. G. Borisov, "Quantum plasmonics: nonlinear effects in the field enhancement of a plasmonic nanoparticle dimer," Nano Letters, Vol. 12, No. 3, 1333-9, 2012.

    28. Teperik, T. V., P. Nordlander, J. Aizpurua, and A. G. Borisov, "Quantum effects and nonlocality in strongly coupled plasmonic nanowire dimers," Optics Express, Vol. 21, No. 22, 27306-25, 2013.

    29. Thongrattanasiri, S., A. Manjavacas, and F. J. G. D. Abajo, "Quantum finite-size effects in graphene plasmons," Acs Nano, Vol. 6, No. 2, 1766-75, 2012.