Single patch designs of a microstrip antenna with a U-slot or a pair of rectangular slots (E-shape) provide a single band circularly polarized response, and hence they are not useful in frequency and polarization agile applications. In this paper, a modified design of a Ψ-shape microstrip antenna is proposed for dual band and dual sense circularly polarized response. Use of unequal length rectangular slots in the modified patch, optimizes the inter-spacing between the modified TM21 and TM22 resonant modes, surface current distributions and impedance levels at them to yield dual band circularly polarized response. An impedance bandwidth of 1992 MHz (37.05%) is obtained which completely covers the axial ratio bandwidth of 11.84 and 5.67%, in the two bands with frequency ratio of 1.3 in between them, thereby satisfying the requirements of frequency agile systems. Over the impedance and axial ratio bandwidth, the antenna exhibits nearly broadside radiation pattern with a gain of around 7 dBi. A design methodology based on the simple parametric formulation is presented, which helps in realizing a similar antenna in the specific frequency band. The proposed antenna can find applications in frequency and polarization agile systems where the signal loss due to the interference and jamming can be reduced.
2. Bahl, I. J. and P. Bhartia, Microstrip Antennas, Artech House, USA, 1980.
3. Balanis, C. A., Antenna Theory: Analysis and Design, 2nd Ed., John Wiley & Sons Ltd., USA, 1996.
4. Deshpande, M. D. and N. K. Das, "Rectangular microstrip antenna for circular polarization," IEEE Trans. Antennas Propag., Vol. 34, No. 6, 744-746, 1986.
5. Kumar, G. and K. P. Ray, Broadband Microstrip Antennas, 1st Ed., Artech House, USA, 2003.
6. Wong, K. L., Compact and Broadband Microstrip Antennas, 1st Ed., John Wiley & Sons, New York, USA, 2002.
7. Suzuki, Y., N. Mitano, and T. Chiba, "Circularly polarized radiation from singly fed Equilateral-triangular microstrip antenna," IEE Proceedings H, Vol. 134, No. 2, 194-198, 1987.
8. Lu, J.-H., H.-C. Yu, and K.-L. Wong, "Compact circular polarization design for equilateral-triangular microstrip antenna with spur lines," Electronic Letters, Vol. 34, No. 21, 1989-1990, 1998.
9. Lu, J.-H. and K.-L. Won, "Single-feed circularly polarized equilateral-triangular microstrip antenna with a tuning stub," IEEE Trans. Antennas Propag., Vol. 48, No. 12, 1869-1872, 2000.
10. Nageswara Rao, P. and N. V. S. N. Sarma, "Koch fractal boundary single feed circularly polarized microstrip antenna," Journal of Microwaves, Optoelectronics and Electromagnetic Applications, Vol. 6, No. 2, 406-413, 2007.
11. Zhang, X. and L. Zhu, "High-gain circularly polarized microstrip patch antenna with loading of shorting pins," IEEE Trans. Antennas Propag., Vol. 64, No. 6, 2172-2178, 2016.
12. Tran, H. H., N. Nguyen-Trong, and H. C. Park, "A compact wideband omnidirectional circularly polarized antenna using TM01 mode with capacitive feeding," IEEE Antennas and Wireless Propagation Letters, Vol. 18, No. 1, 19-23, 2019.
13. Shi, Y. and J. Liu, "Wideband and Low profile omni-directional circularly polarized antenna with slits and shorting vias," IEEE Antennas and Wireless Propagation Letters, Vol. 15, 686-689, 2016.
14. Zhang, X., L. Zhu, and N. Liu, "Pin-loaded circularly-polarized patch antennas with wide 3-dB axial ratio bandwidth," IEEE Trans. Antennas Propag., Vol. 65, No. 2, 521-528, 2017.
15. Deng, J.-Y., L.-X. Guo, T.-Q. Fan, Z.-S. Wu, Y.-J. Hu, and J. H. Yang, "Wideband circularly polarized suspended patch antenna with indented edge and gap-coupled feed," Progress In Electromagnetics Research, Vol. 135, 151-159, 2013.
16. Shi, Y. and J. Liu, "A circularly polarized octagon-star-shaped microstrip patch antenna with conical radiation pattern," IEEE Trans. Antennas Propag., Vol. 66, No. 4, 2073-2078, 2018.
17. Deshmukh, A. A. and K. P. Ray, "Circularly polarized designs of modified isosceles triangular microstrip antennas," Engineering Reports, Wiley Publication, https://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1002/eng2.12250.
18. Sim, C. Y. D, C. C. Chen, R. Cao, and B. S. Chen, "A circular patch antenna with parasitic element for UHF RFID applications," International Journal of RF Microwave and Computer Aided Engineering, Vol. 25, No. 8, 681-687, 2015.
19. Fu, S., Q. Kong, S. Fang, and Z. Wang, "Broadband circularly polarized microstrip antenna with coplanar parasitic ring slot patch for L-band satellite system application," IEEE Antennas and Wireless Propagation Letters, Vol. 13, 943-946, 2014.
20. Lam, K. Y., K.-M. Luk, K. F. Lee, H. Wong, and K. B. Ng, "Small circularly polarized U-slot wideband patch antenna," IEEE Antennas and Wireless Propagation Letters, Vol. 10, 87-90, 2011.
21. Khidre, A., K. F. Lee, F. Yang, and A. Elsherbeni, "Wideband circularly polarized E-shaped patch antenna for wireless applications," IEEE Antennas & Propagation Magazine, Vol. 52, No. 5, 219-229, 2010.
22. Kovitz, J. M., H. Rajagopalan, and Y. Rahmat-Samii, "Circularly polarised half E-shaped patch antenna: A compact and fabrication-friendly design," IET Microwave Antennas and Propagation, Vol. 10, No. 9, 932-938, 2016.
23. Sharma, S. K. and L. Shafai, "Performance of a novel Ψ-shaped microstrip patch antenna with wide bandwidth," IEEE Antennas and Wireless Propagation Letters, Vol. 8, 468-471, 2009.
24. Mondal, T., S. Maity, R. Ghatak, and R. B. S. Chaudhuri, "Design and analysis of a wideband circularly polarized perturbed Psi-shaped antenna," IET Microwaves, Antennas & Propagation, Vol. 12, No. 9, 1582-1586, 2018.
25. Wei, K., J. Y. Li, L. Wang, R. Xu, and Z. J. Xing, "A new technique to design circularly polarized microstrip antenna by fractal defected ground structure," IEEE Trans. Antennas Propag., Vol. 65, No. 7, 3721-3725, 2017.
26. Liu, Q., J. Shen, J. Yin, H. Liu, and Y. Liu, "Compact 0.92/2.45 GHz dual-band directional circularly polarized microstrip antenna for handheld rfid reader applications," IEEE Trans. Antennas Propag., Vol. 63, No. 9, 3849-3856, 2015.
27. Rui, X., J. Li, and K. Wei, "Dual-band dual-sense circularly polarized square slot antenna with simple structure," Electronics Letters, Vol. 52, No. 8, 578-580, 2016.
28. Kumar, P., S. Dwari, R. K. Saini, and M. K. Mandal, "Dual band dual sense polarization reconfigurable circularly polarized antenna," IEEE Antennas and Wireless Propagation Letters, Vol. 18, No. 1, 64-68, 2019.
29. Samsuzzaman, Md. and M. T. Islam, "Dual frequency circularly polarized cross-shaped slotted patch antenna with a small frequency ratio," Microwave and Optical Technology Letters, Vol. 56, No. 11, 2711-2719, 2014.
30. Lei, Z.-Y., J. Zhang, R. Yang, X. Liu, L. Chen, and X. Kong, "Design of dual-band dual-sense circularly polarized slot antenna," Progress In Electromagnetics Research C, Vol. 43, 41-51, 2013.
31. Shao, Y. and Z. Chen, "A design of dual-frequency dual-sense circularly-polarized slot antenna," IEEE Trans. Antennas Propag., Vol. 60, No. 11, 4992-4997, 2021.
32. Zhang, H.-Y., F.-S. Zhang, C. Wang, and T. Li, "Dual-band omnidirectional circularly polarized patch antenna with etched slots and shorting vias," Progress In Electromagnetic Research C, Vol. 73, 167-176, 2017.
33. Deng, C. J., Y. Li, Z. Zhang, G. Pan, and Z. Feng, "Dual-band circularly polarized rotated patch antenna with a parasitic circular patch loading," IEEE Antennas and Wireless Propagation Letters, Vol. 12, 492-495, 2013.
34. Wang, Z., R. She, J. Han, S. Fang, and Y. Liu, "Dual-band dual-sense circularly polarized stacked patch antenna with a small frequency ratio for UHF RFID reader applications," IEEE Access, Vol. 5, 15260-15270, 2017.
35. Liang, Z.-X., D.-C. Yang, X.-C. Wei, and E.-P. Li, "Dual-band dual circularly polarized microstrip antenna with two eccentric rings and an arc-shaped conducting strip," IEEE Antennas and Wireless Propagation Letters, Vol. 15, 834-837, 2016.
36. Deshmukh, A. A., A. Doshi, and A. Odhekar, "Gap coupled design star shape microstrip antenna for dual band and wide band circular polarized response," International Journal of RF and Microwave, Computer Aided Engineering, Vol. 29, No. 5, 664-674, 2019.
37. Liu, H., C. Xun, S.-J. Fang, and Z. Wang, "Compact dual-band circularly polarized patch antenna with wide 3-dB axial ratio beamwidth for BeiDou applications," Progress In Electromagnetic Research M, Vol. 87, 103-113, 2019.
38. Ray, M. K., K. Mandal, N. Nasimuddin, A. Lalbaksha, R. Raad, and F. Tubbal, "Two-pair slots inserted CP patch antenna for wide axial ratio beamwidth," IEEE Access, Vol. 8, 223316-223324, 2020.
39. Ray, M. K. and K. Mandal, "Pair of diagonal slots loaded low-prole circularly polarised patch antenna with wide 3 dB axial ratio beamwidth," IET Microwave Antennas and Propagation, Vol. 13, No. 14, 2433-2438, 2019.
40. Ray, M. K., K. Mandal, and N. Nasimuddin, "Low profile circularly polarized patch antenna with wide 3-dB beamwidth," IEEE Antennas and Wireless Propagation Letters, Vol. 18, No. 12, 2473-2477, 2019.
41. Khidre, A., K. Lee, F. Yang, and A. Z. Elsherbeni, "Circular polarization reconfigurable wideband E-shaped patch antenna for wireless applications," IEEE Trans. Antennas Propag., Vol. 61, No. 2, 960-964, 2013.
42. Yu, J., W.-J. Lu, Y. Cheng, and L. Zhu, "Tilted circularly polarized beam microstrip antenna with miniaturized circular sector patch under wideband dual-mode resonance," IEEE Trans. Antennas Propag., Vol. 68, No. 9, 6580-6590, 2020.
43. Ameen, M. and R. K. Chaudhary, "A compact circularly polarized antenna using CRLH inspired transmission line and coupled ring resonator," AEU International Journal of Electronics and Communication, 2020, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.aeue.2020.153238.
44. Khandelwal, M. K., "Metamaterial based circularly polarized four-port MIMO diversity antenna embedded with slow-wave structure for miniaturization and suppression of mutual coupling," AEU International Journal of Electronics and Communication, 2020, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.aeue.2020.153241.
45. CST Microwave studio, Version 2019, .
46. Deshmukh, A. A. and K. P. Ray, "Analysis of broadband Ψ-shaped microstrip antennas," IEEE Antennas and Propagation Magazine, Vol. 55, No. 2, 107-123, 2013.