This paper presents a theoretical model for the propagation of a hollow Gaussian electromagnetic beam [HGB], propagating in a plasma with dominant relativistic-ponderomotive nonlinearity. A paraxial like approach has been invoked to understand the nature of propagation; in this approach all the relevant parameters correspond to a narrow range around the irradiance maximum of the HGB. The critical curves for the propagation of various order HGBs have been discussed, and the dependence of the beam width parameter on distance of propagation has been evaluated for three typical cases of steady divergence, oscillatory divergence and self focusing of the HGB.
Sanjay Kumar Mishra,
"Focusing of Dark Hollow Gaussian Electromagnetic Beams in a Plasma with Relativistic-Ponderomotive Regime," Progress In Electromagnetics Research B,
Vol. 16, 291-309, 2009. doi:10.2528/PIERB09061705
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